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Table 4 Selected content of physical activity programs for older adults from major organizations and institutions

From: Best practices for physical activity programs and behavior counseling in older adult populations

Resource Endurance Strength Flexibility/Range of motion Balance Programming Special conditions Appropriate audience
1. ACSM fitness book: third edition [3] Walking and large muscle groups 13 exercises, free weights and body weight 21 exercises Limited coverage Lifestyle safety programming evaluation Limited coverage Exercise participant (middle and young–old ages)
2. ACSM resource manual: fourth edition [4] Types of fitness, goal setting, developing exercise sessions, progression, and maintenance Precautions, patients with cardiovascular disease recommendations Techniques for static stretching and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation; 23 exercises illustrated Limited specific coverage Injuries: risks, prevention, and care Patients with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension, peripheral arterial disease, osteoporosis, and chronic lung disease Professional wanting underlying scientific basis for recommendations
3. American Council on Exercise: Exercise for older adults book [5] Techniques in group exercise Seven exercises, free weights; six exercises, elastic bands 11 exercises Three exercises Lifestyle safety programming group-based leadership Major chronic conditions, medications Lay or professional exercise leaders
4. Exercise: a guide from the National Institute on Aging book/video [20] Lifestyle activities 12 exercises, free weights and body weight 12 exercises Six exercises Lifestyle safety programming individual evaluation Limited coverage Older adult participant
5. Exercise for frail elders [7] 10 seated 14 exercises, elastic, free and Velcro strapped on weights 24 exercises 0 Safety programming group-based Comprehensive section on chronic conditions Lay or professional exercise leader
  1. Programming included strategies for integrating balance, strength, and flexibility into programs or lifestyle activities, and sample schedules with days of the week for strength, endurance, and flexibility training. Evaluation strategies range from simple awareness of functional changes to extensive field-based measures (ACSM). Lifestyle activities include examples of activities that can substitute for walking, cycling, and swimming. Elastic refers to elastic cords or bands, and free weights include anything that can be held or attached to the wrist or ankles. Body weight includes use of body weight for resistance, stair climbing, chair stands, and push-ups