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Table 2 Exercise program, study follow-up, control group characteristics, and training principles

From: Exercise and health in frail elderly people: a review of randomized controlled trials

Study Exercise program Study follow-up and intervention length Control group characteristics Training principles
Binder et al. [14] Supervised multicomponent training (flexibility, balance, coordination, speed of reaction, strength, and endurance), three times per week during 9 months 9 months Low-intensity home-based training (flexibility); 1 h/session, two to three times per week for 9 months Frequency, duration, intensity, progression, individualization, and specificity
Ehsani et al. [19] see Binder et al. [14] see Binder et al. [14] see Binder et al. [14] progression, individualization, frequency, duration, intensity, and specificity
Brown et al. [15] Supervised low-intensity multicomponent training, three times per week for 3 months (flexibility, balance, body handling skills, speed of reaction, coordination, and strength) 3 months Low-intesity home-based exercise (flexibility); 1 h/session, three times per week for 3 months Progression, frequency, individualization, and specificity
Jensen et al. [28] 11-week supervised multicomponent exercise program (balance, ambulation, strength, endurance, flexibility, and safe movement behavior) executed, in general, two to three times per week, 1–3 h/week 11-week intervention, 9-month follow-up Usual care Progression, individualization, intensity, duration, frequency, and specificity
Rydwik et al. [29] Supervised multicomponent exercise program (endurance, strength, and balance), 1 h/session, two times per week for 12 weeks 3-month intervention, 9-month follow-up General advice on physical training and diet Progression, individualization, intensity, duration, frequecy, and specificity
Timonen et al. [33] Supervised multicomponent exercise program (resistance training and functional exercises), two times per week, 90 min/session, for 10 weeks 10-month intervention, 9-month follow-up after intervention Requested to perform a home-based functional exercise program, two to three times per week  
Timonen et al. [32] see Timonen et al. [33] see Timonen et al. [33] see Timonen et al. [33] Progression, individualization, intensity, duration, frequency, and specificity
Timonen et al. [31] see Timonen et al. [33] see Timonen et al. [33] see Timonen et al. [33] Progression, individualization, intensity, duration, frequency, and specificity
Binder et al. [37] 6 months of supervised multicomponent training (flexibility, balance, coordination, movement speed, strength, and endurance), 45–90 min/session (with possible breaks), three times per week 6 months Low-intesity home-based exercise (flexibility); 1 h/session three times per week for 6 months Progression, individualization frequency, specificity, and duration
Greenspan et al. [22] Supervised tai chi exercise (trunk rotation, weight shifting, coordination, and gradual narrowing of the lower extremity stance), two times per week from 10 to 50 min for 48 weeks 48 weeks wellness educational program (instructions on falls-prevention, exercise, balance diet, and nutrition) 1 h/week  
Sattin et al. [25] see Greenspan et al. [22] see Greenspan et al. [22] see Greenspan et al. [22]  
Wolf et al. [26] see Greenspan et al. [22] see Greenspan et al. [22] see Greenspan et al. [22] Progression, individualization, duration, frequency, and specificity
Wolf et al. [36] see Greenspan et al. [22] see Greenspan et al. [22] see Greenspan et al. [22] Progression, individualization, frequency, duration, and specificity (for some measures)
Wolf et al. [34] 15 weeks of supervised tai chi (two times per week; subjects were requested to try two times per day for 15 min—not monitored) or balance training (once per week) 15-month intervention; 4-month after follow-up Discussions with a nurse (e.g., sleep disorders), once a week, 1 h/session for 15 weeks Progression, frequency individualization, and specificity
Greiwe et al. [23] Supervised resistance training program, three times per week for 3 months, 50–90 min/session 3 months Light stretching program for 3 months  
Latham et al. [24] Home-based resistance quadriceps exercise (ankle cuff weights), three times per week during 10 weeks 10-month intervention, 6-month follow-up Frequency-matched telephone calls and home visits Individualization, specificity, intensity, and frequency
Dorner et al. [27] three times per week, 50 min/session, of a supervised resistance exercise program focused on strength and balance 10 weeks   Frequency, duration, and specificity
Seynnes et al. [35] Supervised 10-week resistance training (knee muscles), three times per week 10 weeks Placebo exercise (empty cuff weights) Progression, individualization, intensity, frequency, and specificity
Miller et al. [38] Supervised resistance training (hip extensors and abductors, knee extensors, ankle dorsi, and plantar-flexors), three times per week, 20–30 min/session for 12 weeks 12 weeks Usual care. matched visits (“attention effect”), three times per week (weeks 1–6); and once a week (weeks 7–12) Progression, individualization, intensity, duration, frequency, and specificity
Chin A Paw et al. [16] Supervised skills training program, two times per week for 17 weeks, 45 min/session (focused on strength, speed, endurance, flexibility, and coordination) 17 weeks social program, once or twice a week, 90 min/session (adjustment for socializing and attention effects) Progression, individualization, duration, frequency, intesity, and specificity
Chin A Paw et al. [17] see Chin A Paw et al. [16] see Chin A Paw et al. [16] see Chin A Paw et al. [16]  
de Jong et al. [18] see Chin A Paw et al. [16] see Chin A Paw et al. [16] see Chin A Paw et al. [16]  
Alexander et al. [39] Supervised bed- and chair-rise task-specific training with emphasis on strength and range of motion (proximal upper and lower extremity, musculature, and trunk), performed for 12 weeks, three times per week, 1 h/session 12 weeks 12-week exercise program focused on flexibility, three times per week, 1 h/session Progression, individualization, intensity, frequency, duration, and specificity
Rosendahl et al. [41] Supervised functional exercise program (everyday tasks challenging leg strength, postural stability, and gait ability) with 45 min/session, five times every 2 weeks for 3 months 3-month intervention and 6-month follow-up Social activities (watching films, reading, singing, and conversation) Progression, individualization, frequency, duration, intensity, and specificity
Faber et al. [20] Supervised fall-preventive exercise programs (focused on balance and functional strength, and/or tai chi principles), 60 min/session, once a week for 4 weeks, and two times per week for 16 weeks. 20-week intervention and 52-week follow-up   Progression, individualization, duration, frequency, and specificity
Gill et al. [21] 6-month home-based exercise program (balance once a day and leg and arm-conditioning and strengthening three times per week); participants received in average 14.9 visits of a physical therapist 6-month intervention and 12-month follow-up educational program (attention and health education), 45–60 min/session for 6 months, with visits of a health educator Individualization, specificity, and frequency
Gill et al. [40] see Gill et al. [21] see Gill et al. [21] see Gill et al. [21] Individualization, specificity, and frequency
Shimada et al. [30] Two supervised exercise training (balance and gait training), two to three times per week during 40 min/session, for 12 weeks 12 weeks Usual care Individualization, duration, frequency, and specificity