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Table 2 Identification of references and percentage of incidence of the causes and risk factors for falls

From: Physical consequences of falls in the elderly: a literature review from 1995 to 2010

  N (%)a References
Behavioural
 Medication (overdose) 32.1 [3, 5, 79, 13, 17, 19, 21, 22, 84, 33, 39, 40, 48, 53, 5557, 60, 61, 63, 66, 70, 71, 77, 78, 86]
 Fear of falling (after the first fall) 29.8 [1, 13, 18, 20, 25, 32, 33, 3739, 41, 47, 52, 53, 56, 62, 63, 67, 68, 70, 7678, 81, 86]
 Fear of falling (without ever having fallen) 22.9 [6, 13, 18, 20, 25, 32, 33, 38, 39, 41, 52, 53, 62, 63, 67, 76, 77, 79, 81, 85]
 Reduction of physical activity 16.0 [6, 19, 20, 23, 84, 3941, 55, 63, 71, 75, 77, 86]
 Activities of daily living 11.4 [13, 20, 21, 25, 29, 36, 39, 63, 81, 86]
 Alcohol consumption 10.3 [2, 13, 19, 84, 40, 53, 55, 63, 70]
 Slip/slide 6.8 [23, 33, 40, 45, 46, 64]
 Direction of fall (sideways) 4.5 [14, 24, 25, 49]
 Fainting 4.5 [13, 33, 55, 57]
 Inappropriate footwear 3.4 [17, 84, 48]
 Smoking 3.4 [40, 55, 63]
 Direction of fall (forward) 2.2 [14, 23]
 Difficulties in dressing 1.1 [55]
 Level/angle/position of the impact 1.1 [40]
Biological
 Lack of balance while walking 33.3 [2, 57, 9, 13, 14, 17, 19, 20, 22, 23, 31, 33, 39, 40, 45, 48, 53, 55, 62, 63, 6670, 81, 86]
 Musculoskeletal and sensory degradation 26.4 [3, 57, 13, 14, 17, 22, 23, 84, 40, 45, 53, 55, 6164, 66, 69, 71, 78, 81]
 Functional dependence on mobility 25.2 [7, 9, 12, 1921, 2326, 35, 39, 40, 50, 53, 55, 56, 62, 67, 71, 77, 78]
 Cognitive impairment 24.1 [6, 7, 9, 13, 17, 1923, 84, 45, 55, 59, 63, 64, 69, 70, 75, 77, 81]
 Age 19.5 [5, 10, 12, 84, 34, 36, 40, 49, 55, 56, 63, 66, 70, 71, 78, 86]
 Sex (higher incidence in females) 18.3 [3, 5, 13, 84, 35, 40, 43, 48, 49, 56, 63, 67, 70, 78, 80, 86]
 Decreased bone density 14.9 [5, 14, 24, 25, 84, 34, 40, 43, 49, 56, 62, 63, 71]
 Lack of vision 14.9 [7, 13, 17, 22, 40, 48, 53, 55, 56, 63, 77, 86, 87]
 Chronic disease 13.7 [9, 13, 22, 84, 33, 40, 48, 55, 63, 69, 70, 86]
 Depression 12.6 [2, 13, 17, 26, 33, 55, 63, 67, 70, 77, 81]
 Dizziness/vertigo 11.4 [7, 13, 17, 22, 40, 48, 53, 55, 56, 63, 77, 86, 87]
 Decrease in body mass index 10.3 [5, 7, 10, 25, 29, 40, 49, 55, 71]
 Pains 4.5 [3, 6, 35, 56]
 Changes in soft tissues 4.5 [14, 40, 57, 64]
 Urinary incontinence 3.4 [33, 56, 61]
 Postural hypotension 3.4 [17, 56, 61]
 Weight (body mass that falls) 3.4 [25, 40, 63]
 Hearing problems 3.4 [13, 55, 63]
Environmental
 Unsafe home environments 17.2 [5, 7, 15, 17, 22, 25, 84, 33, 48, 55, 63, 65, 66, 71, 86]
 Unsafe outdoors 16.0 [5, 7, 15, 17, 19, 22, 25, 84, 33, 48, 55, 66, 71, 86]
 Height of fall 2.2 [14, 25]
 Collision with objects 2.2 [23, 55]
 Mobility aids 2.2 [40, 63]
 Falls hospital beds 1.1 [27]
 Socio-economic
 Level of education and income 2.2 [84, 78]
 Access to social services and health 2.2 [84, 78]
 Lack of social interaction 1.1 [84]
  1. aThe percentages refer to a total of 87 publications