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Table 3 Identification of references of physical consequences of falls and its physiological effects

From: Physical consequences of falls in the elderly: a literature review from 1995 to 2010

  N (%)a References
Fractures
 Hip fracture 37.9 [1, 2, 4, 5, 10, 11, 14, 16, 21, 24, 25, 30, 84, 33, 36, 40, 42, 47, 49, 53, 55, 5759, 62, 64, 7072, 80, 81, 86, 87]
 Undifferentiated bone fractures 27.5 [5, 13, 14, 21, 25, 33, 35, 37, 40, 43, 47, 58, 61, 63, 64, 70, 74, 75, 77, 78, 8082, 86]
 Trochanteric femoral fractures 5.7 [33, 40, 57, 58, 74]
 Fractures in the trunk 4.5 [14, 33, 40, 47]
 Neck fractures 4.5 [14, 47, 57, 58]
 Fractures of the upper limbs 3.4 [14, 40, 47]
 Fracture of the humerus 2.2 [33, 40]
 Fractures in the chest 1.1 [82]
 Broken knee 1.1 [40]
Bruises
 Head bruises 10.3 [13, 14, 35, 53, 58, 62, 70, 77, 86]
 Bruises and abrasions 3.4 [35, 47, 75]
 Bruises with blood loss 1.1 [70]
Injuries
 Soft tissue injuries 6.8 [14, 33, 35, 43, 62, 86]
 Injuries in the upper extremities 5.7 [14, 40, 62, 64, 75]
 Traumatic brain injury 4.5 [14, 84, 70, 75]
 Injuries in wrists 4.5 [14, 33, 40, 47]
 Injuries in the lower extremities 3.4 [33, 62, 75]
 Injuries in the elbow 2.2 [14, 40]
Physiological effects
 Death or morbidity 21.8 [5, 9, 22, 25, 84, 33, 35, 47, 49, 51, 55, 60, 6264, 66, 67, 71]
 Functional decline 20.6 [5, 13, 23, 25, 35, 40, 41, 49, 52, 53, 55, 64, 67, 70, 71, 76, 78, 81]
 Inactivity 14.9 [3, 6, 13, 35, 41, 47, 52, 53, 63, 67, 70, 77, 81]
 Functional dependency and loss of autonomy 13.7 [84, 33, 35, 41, 49, 52, 71, 7678, 81, 86]
 Depression 10.3 [13, 84, 35, 53, 55, 63, 67, 70, 81]
 Loss of self-confidence 5.7 [25, 33, 35, 67, 76]
 Loss of self-efficacy 2.2 [41, 67]
Others
 Lacerations 8.0 [35, 47, 58, 62, 70, 75, 86]
 Dislocations 5.7 [14, 41, 70, 77, 81]
 Sprains 3.4 [14, 35, 70]
 Pains 2.2 [35, 70]
 Hematoma 1.1 [33]
  1. aThe percentages refer to a total of 87 publications