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Table 4 Identification of references and percentage of incidence, for physical, environmental and behavioural interventions for prevention, minimization and rehabilitation of falls in the elderly

From: Physical consequences of falls in the elderly: a literature review from 1995 to 2010

  Pr Mi Re N (%) References
Physical interventions
 Adjustment of medication x   x 18.3 [8, 13, 17, 19, 25, 84, 33, 35, 39, 53, 55, 61, 63, 72, 81, 86]
 Protective coating systems can reduce hip fracture risk in the event of a fall.   x   17.2 [5, 7, 10, 11, 16, 17, 19, 25, 30, 35, 40, 42, 59, 62, 63]
 Use of nutrition programmes (calcium and vitamin D) x x x 11.4 [4, 5, 17, 19, 25, 33, 35, 51, 53, 63]
 Mobility aids x x x 5.7 [5, 17, 19, 24, 62]
 Increase and maintain bone mass and strength through exercise x x   4.5 [23, 25, 61, 81]
 Vision interventions (cataract surgery) x    4.5 [17, 19, 35, 73]
 Use of appropriate footwear x   x 4.5 [5, 17, 35, 48]
Environmental interventions
 Changes in the home and public environment to reduce the risk of falling x    11.4 [1, 5, 17, 19, 28, 84, 35, 65, 71, 73]
 Removal of obstacles in the household x    4.5 [28, 33, 55, 62]
Behavioural interventions
 Increased physical activity and exercise x x x 21.8 [2, 5, 6, 13, 14, 17, 19, 23, 25, 84, 33, 35, 51, 53, 55, 63, 66, 71, 73]
 Methods based on the rehabilitation gait training    x 14.9 [5, 17, 28, 33, 35, 44, 45, 53, 55, 62, 71, 79, 81]
 Evaluation and management of risk factors for multiple falls x    10.3 [33, 39, 51, 56, 58, 60, 71, 74, 76]
 Evaluation of the people who have fallen or at risk of falling, to identify modifiable risk factors x   x 5.7 [35, 39, 53, 60, 76]
 Strategies to modify risk behaviours of the patient falling x    5.7 [17, 28, 39, 60, 76]
 Mechanisms that characterise the cognitive changes associated with ageing. x    4.5 [39, 45, 63, 86]
  1. aThe percentages refer to a total of 87 publications
  2. Pr prevention, Mi minimization, Re rehabilitation