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Table 2 Summary of trial inclusion and exclusion criteria and participant characteristics

From: Systematic review of functional training on muscle strength, physical functioning, and activities of daily living in older adults

Author and publication year Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria Living arrangements
Alexander et al., 2001 [9] 65 Years of age or above. Requiring assistance in transferring, walking, bathing, and/or toileting. Medically stable.
No evidence of severe dementia or depression. Not participating in regular, strenuous exercise.
NS Congregate housing residents
Clemson et al., 2012 [13] 70 Years of age or above. Had 2 or more falls in the past 12 months. Moderate to severe cognitive problems. No conversational English. Inability to ambulate Independently. Neurological conditions that severely influenced gait and mobility. Resident in a nursing home or hostel. Having any unstable or terminal illness. Recruited from the Department of Veterans Affairs and general practices databases.
Cress et al., 1996 [46] Women from 65 years to 83 years of age. No known cardiovascular, neuromuscular, or metabolic disease. NS. Healthy community dwelling older women.
de Vreede et al., 2005 [35] Women 70 years of age or above. Medically fit to participate in an exercise program. Recent fractures, unstable cardiovascular or metabolic diseases, musculoskeletal disease or other chronic illnesses, severe airflow obstruction, recent depression or emotional distress, or loss of mobility for more than 1 week in the last 2 months. Respondents who exercised 3 times a week or more at a sports club. Community dwelling.
Dobek et al., 2006 [17] 70 Years of age or above. Being ambulatory. Unable to follow directions or complete baseline testing. Community dwelling.
Gillies et al., 1999 [7] 70 years of age or above. Being mobile and able to perform test battery. No medical conditions which would interfere with the safe conduct of the training exercise. NS. Recruited from two residential homes.
Giné-Garriga et al., 2010 [51] Between 80 and 90 years of age. Had some or a lot of difficulty rising from a chair or climbing a flight. Being physically frail. Unable to walk. Undergoing an exercise program. Had severe dementia. Had stroke, hip fracture, myocardial infarction, or hip- or knee- replacement surgery within the previous 6 months. Recruited from one health care center.
Helbostad et al., 2004 [8] 75 Years of age or above. Either suffered one or more falls during the last year, or use some kind of walking aid. Participating in regular exercise more than once a week, terminal illness, cognitive impairment as indicated by a score of < 22 on the MMSE, stroke during the last 6 months, or were deemed unable to tolerate exercise by a geriatrician. Frail community dwelling older adults.
Krebs et al., 2007 [18] 60 Years of age or above. No cognitive impairments. Being able to ambulate for 15 ft. Terminal illness, progressive neurological disease, major loss of vision, acute pain, non-ambulatory status. Recruited through weekly screening of the outpatient physical therapy appointments.
Littbrand et al., 2009 [1] 65 Years of age or above. Dependent on one or more activities of daily living. Ability to stand up from a chair with assistance. MMSE scored 10 or higher. Having physician’s approval. NS. Residential care facilities. High percentage of participants had a diagnosis of dementia.
Manini et al., 2007 [12] Having difficulty to rise from a chair or climb a flight of stairs. NS. Recruited from community senior centers.
Skelton et al., 1996 [31] Women 74 years of age or above. Having functional or mobility difficulties. Disease or condition that would be adversely affected by exercise. Patients of a local general medical practice.
Whitehurst et al., 2005 [38] Older adults. Did not pass medical clearance. Community-dwelling
  1. MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, NS not specified