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Table 2 Group comparison between baseline and post-assessment (Mean ± Standard Deviation, SD)

From: ICT-based system to predict and prevent falls (iStoppFalls): results from an international multicenter randomized controlled trial

Variable Intervention group (n = 78) Control group (n = 75)  
  Pre Post Pre Post P a
Primary outcome measures      
 Physiological Profile Assessment (score) 0.62 ± 0.89 0.41 ± 0.95 0.55 ± 0.90 0.39 ± 0.80 0.035
 European Quality of Life – 5 Dimensions (index) 0.86 ± 0.11 0.86 ± 0.15 0.86 ± 0.13 0.87 ± 0.13 0.741
 European Quality of Life – 5 Dimensions (VAS) 79.2 ± 14.7 80.9 ± 13.7 81.7 ± 12.7 79.9 ± 14.6 0.244
Secondary outcome measures      
 General health measures
  WHODAS (score)b 16.0 ± 4.5 16.3 ± 4.8 15.6 ± 4.1 16.0 ± 4.5 0.494
 Physical and sensorimotor measures
  Melbourne edge test (score) 20.8 ± 1.6 21.0 ± 2.1 21.1 ± 1.8 21.2 ± 2.1 0.278
  Proprioception (°)b 1.3 ± 1.0 1.2 ± 1.1 1.7 ± 1.3 1.3 ± 0.9 0.758
  Knee extension strength (kg) 23.0 ± 9.2 28.0 ± 11.9 22.7 ± 9.9 27.1 ± 14.0 0.545
  Hand grip strength (kg) 24.9 ± 9.4 23.8 ± 8.6 23.9 ± 9.0 24.0 ± 8.7 0.979
  Hand reaction time (ms) 245 ± 43 249 ± 47 239 ± 50 263 ± 45 0.002
  Sway, area (mm2)b 841 ± 692 774 ± 1191 797 ± 596 629 ± 973 0.940
  Coordinated stability, errorsb 11.3 ± 10.3 8.5 ± 9.0 12.2 ± 13.6 8.0 ± 9.0 0.909
  Maximum balance range, anterior-posterior (mm) 139 ± 41 145 ± 35 137 ± 48 152 ± 39 0.713
  Timed up and go test (s) 9.7 ± 2.8 9.5 ± 2.7 10.2 ± 3.1 9.2 ± 2.1 0.504
  Short Physical Performance Battery (score) 10.4 ± 1.7 11.1 ± 1.5 10.2 ± 1.6 10.9 ± 1.4 0.548
  Sensor-based chair stand test (s)b 12.5 ± 4.2 10.8 ± 3.2 13.1 ± 3.7 12.1 ± 3.3 0.347
  Sensor-based semi tandem stance (s) 28.3 ± 6.0 28.9 ± 5.2 29.5 ± 3.0 29.2 ± 4.5 0.412
  Sensor-based near tandem stance (s) 28.1 ± 6.3 28.5 ± 5.7 28.3 ± 5.4 29.1 ± 4.5 0.876
  Sensor-based full tandem stance (s) 24.4 ± 9.9 24.4 ± 9.5 23.3 ± 10.2 25.0 ± 9.2 0.727
  Sensor-based hand reaction time (ms)b 698 ± 142 619 ± 131 705 ± 391 649 ± 162 0.259
  Sensor-based stepping reaction time (ms)b 794 ± 199 732 ± 209 801 ± 142 743 ± 121 0.055
  10 m walking time, single-tasking (s)b 8.9 ± 2.0 8.7 ± 1.8 8.9 ± 2.3 8.6 ± 1.8 0.323
  10 m walking time, dual-tasking (s)b 12.0 ± 3.9 11.4 ± 3.8 12.0 ± 4.5 11.7 ± 4.0 0.040
 Cognitive measures
  Trail Making Test, part A (s)b 42.8 ± 17.5 40.4 ± 16.5 44.2 ± 18.1 39.5 ± 14.1 0.736
  Trail Making Test, part B (s)b 114.5 ± 55.8 100.6 ± 51.1 116.2 ± 52.2 96.3 ± 47.9 0.474
  Digit symbol coding test, correct (n) 49.4 ± 15.6 51.4 ± 15.7 44.5 ± 13.0 48.6 ± 11.9 0.444
  Digit span backward test, score (n) 6.0 ± 2.3 6.1 ± 2.1 5.9 ± 2.3 5.7 ± 2.5 0.178
  Attention Network Test, reaction time (ms)b 808 ± 134 789 ± 130 810 ± 116 745 ± 97 0.121
  Attention Network Test, alert (ms) 29.5 ± 34.3 37.3 ± 30.0 35.4 ± 33.8 39.1 ± 32.2 0.262
  Attention Network Test, orient (ms) 44.4 ± 38.2 44.0 ± 40.1 51.5 ± 42.1 59.0 ± 40.6 0.561
  Attention Network Test, conflict (ms)b 134.3 ± 74.7 117.3 ± 53.3 127.1 ± 60.3 126.7 ± 63.5 0.329
  Victoria Stroop Test, intrusions (n)b 3.0 ± 3.4 2.3 ± 3.4 3.2 ± 4.0 2.6 ± 4.3 0.802
  Victoria Stroop Test, efficacy (colour words/words)b 1.69 ± 0.73 1.52 ± 0.67 1.63 ± 0.74 1.48 ± 0.60 0.412
 Psychological measures
  Iconographical – Falls Efficacy Scale (score) 16.2 ± 5.3 12.6 ± 8.5 15.4 ± 4.4 11.0 ± 7.5 0.593
  Patient Health Questionnaire – 9 (score)b 3.06 ± 3.14 2.48 ± 2.92 2.99 ± 2.97 2.58 ± 2.38 0.340
  1. VAS Visual Analogue Scale, WHODAS World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule
  2. aANOVA (group*time effect), bLog transformed
  3. Higher scores are better for European Quality of Life – 5 Dimensions (index and VAS), WHODAS, Melbourne edge test, knee extension strength, hand grip strength, maximum balance range, all sensor-based tandem stances, digit symbol coding test and digit span backward test (for all other scores lower values indicate performance improvement)