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Table 2 Standard operation procedure for processing the fall signals

From: The FARSEEING real-world fall repository: a large-scale collaborative database to collect and share sensor signals from real-world falls

Step Description
1. Data check and cleaning: The raw sensor signal, the clinical data and the fall report are checked for missing values and correct coding of the variables.
2. Signal import: A custom-made software tool is used to import and convert the raw signals from manufacturer-specific formats to the standard FARSEEING data format (see Table 3). The sensor orientation is transferred to the uniform orientation (see Fig. 1).
3. Fall signal identification: Based on date, time, and description of the fall event, reported by the participant during the fall interview, the fall signal is screened by the first rater. The fall event is determined by the impact if available. The beginning of the impact phase is determined as the local minimum of the acceleration signal in the vertical-axis followed by a rapid increase of the acceleration value at the impact [13]. In some cases, no impact is present, but a change in posture. In this case the fall event is defined by the first change in posture. If it is possible to identify the fall event, the status is set to ‘verified fall.’
4. Double check: Step 3 is performed by the second rater in a blinded fashion. In case of disagreement the signal is discussed in an expert panel (including experts of the FARSEEING consortium). If the experts or the expert panel agree on the fall event, the status is set to ‘finally verified.’ If there is no agreement on the fall event in the expert panel, the status is set to ‘non-verifiable fall.’
5. Fall signal extraction: The fall signal is stored in a separate file according to the FARSEEING standard fall signal format described below. The pre-fall time is set to 10 min and the post-fall time to at least 10 min or until a recovery movement was observed.
6. Data up-load: The extracted signal, the clinical data and the fall report are entered in the FARSEEING meta-database. To completely anonymize the data, variables are transformed to an aggregated level and any identification code is removed.