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Table 1 Overview of participant characteristics and the differences between the aMCI group and the healthy group

From: Does the diurnal cycle of cortisol explain the relationship between physical performance and cognitive function in older adults?

  All participants (n = 60) aMCI (n = 30) Healthy (n = 30)   
N or Mean % or SD N or Mean % or SD N or Mean % or SD P
Sex (female) 32 53.3 16 53.3 16 53.3 1.00a  
Age (years) 70.6 5.5 72.3 5.4 68.7 4.1 .007b,*  
Education (score) 2.5 1.1 2.1 1.1 2.9 .9 .013b,*  
Depression (score) 4.7 3.6 4.1 2.4 5.3 4.5 .556b  
MMSE (score) 28.6 5.3 24.5 3.9 28.4 1.9 .000c,** .000d,*
TMT-At (s) 79.9 53.6 111.9 59.2 49.0 19.1 .000b,** .000d,**
TMT-Bt (s) 189.0 145.4 308.1 173.9 118.4 53.0 .000c,** .000d,**
TMTB-A (s) 126.8 133.5 226.7 179.1 71.2 43.0 .000c,** .000d,**
TMTB/A 3.1 2.0 4.2 2.9 2.5 0.9 .044c,* .101d
CAR .24 .43 .33 .46 .17 .39 .216c  
Fall .87 .91 .83 .51 .91 .45 .609c  
MeanPostCAR 1.42 .37 1.43 .35 1.41 .40 .884b  
MeanAll 1.88 .35 1.84 .31 1.92 .38 .439c  
VariancePostCAR .30 .20 .29 .18 .30 .22 .887b  
VarianceAll .63 .30 .56 .24 .69 .34 .119c  
8MWT (s) 5.6 1.7 6.6 1.7 4.5 .1 .000c,** .000d,**
6MWT (m) 504.9 87.8 442.2 54.0 569.8 66.3 .000c,** .000d,**
30SCST (score) 14.0 4.1 11.2 2.5 17.2 3.3 .000c,** .000d,**
TGUG (s) 6.7 2.0 8.0 1.8 5.3 .8 .000c,** .000d,**
  1. Categorical variables and continuous variables were tabulated as absolute numbers and percentages and as means and standard deviations (SD), respectively. P-values refer to the level of significance when comparing the aMCI group and the healthy group. Original scores from the cognitive measures and physical performance measures and their derivations were tabulated. Transformed indices were used to compare the aMCI group and the healthy group, without controlling (b,c) and with controlling for covariates, sex, age, education and depression (d)
  2. aChi square test
  3. bMann–Whitney U test
  4. cANOVA
  5. dANCOVA
  6. *Significant at the .05 level
  7. **Significant at the .01 level