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Table 2 Participant characteristics of exercise on cognition in individuals with T2D or IGT

From: Exercise or physical activity and cognitive function in adults with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance or impaired glucose tolerance: a systematic review

Citation Inclusion criteria Condition (N) Age, years (SD) % Female Medications
Watson
et al.
2006 [35]
Glucose tolerance criteria for prediabetes 7.8 mmol/L ≥ 2-h glucose <11.1 mmol/L)
Normal cognitive assessment
Exercise group: exercise
plus AHAS2ED (15)
BMI: 24.7 ± 3.2 kg/m2
Control group:
AHAS1ED (13)
BMI:26.7 ± 4.3 kg/m2
58.0 ± 9.7
60.6 ± 9.0
Not reported Not reported
Colberg
et al.
2008 [36]
American Diabetes Association criteria for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Cutoff point for MMSE score > 24 and SLUMS <20 for high school educated, <15 for less educated Diabetes group (74)
HbA1c, % 6.6 ± 0.2
Control group (71)
HbA1c, % 5.2 ± 0.0
55.5 ± 1.0
57.5 ± 1.3
66.2 Not reported
Devore
et al.
2009 [37]
American Diabetes Association criteria for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes
Diabetes duration: 1–15 year
Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (modified forms of the Mini-Mental State Examination
High physical activity
group (512)
BMI (43%) ≥ 30 kg/m2
Moderate physical
activity group (520)
BMI (33%) ≥ 30 kg/m2
Low physical activity
group (518)
BMI (32%) ≥ 30 kg/m2
No control group
74.0 ± 2.3
74.0 ± 2.4
74.0 ± 2.3
100 Insulin therapy
Oral hypoglycemia
Anti-hypertension/ anti-hypoglycemia
Baker
et al.
2010 [38]
Glucose tolerance criteria for prediabetes (7.8 mmol/L ≥ 2-h glucose <11.1 mmol/L) and for diagnosed type 2 diabetes (2-h glucose ≥1.1 mmol/L)
Normal cognitive assessment
Exercise group: aerobic exercise (19), 2-h OGTT glucose levels:184 ± 46 mg/dL
BMI:30.6 ± 3.9 kg/m2
Control group: stretching (9)
2-h OGTT glucose levels: 163 ± 31.8 mg/dL
BMI: 30.1 ± 7.3 kg/m2
71.0 ± 7.5
66.0 ± 6.0
64.3 Anti-hypertension
Yanagawa et al.
2011 [39]
World Health Organization criteria for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes euglycemic clamp)
Normal cognitive assessment
Exercise group (9)
HbA1c, % 7.29 ± 0.56
BMI: 23.31 ± 2.80 kg/m2
Control group: walking (7)
HbA1c, % 7.14 ± 0.61
BMI: 22.31 ± 2.03 kg/m2
71.6 ± 3.8
70.1 ± 3.7
31.2 Not reported
Lehtisalo et al.
2016 [40]
Glucose tolerance criteria for prediabetes 7.8 mmol/L ≥ 2-h glucose <11.1 mmol/L
Normal cognitive assessment
Exercise group:
Mixing exercise (364)
Control group:
Health advice (158)
55.1 ± 6.8
55.3 ± 7.8
67.1 Not reported
  1. AHAS1ED American Heart Association Step 1 Eucaloric Diet, AHAS2ED American Heart Association Step 2; Eucaloric Diet, MMSE Mini-mental State Examination, SLUMS Saint Louis University Mental Status Examination, OGTT oral glucose tolerance test, HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin, BMI Body mass index, SD Standard deviation
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