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Table 5 Effect of exercise interventions on cognition

From: Exercise or physical activity and cognitive function in adults with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance or impaired glucose tolerance: a systematic review

Citation Outcome measurement Results Calculation Statistics
Domain Method Group Pre-exercise
(Mean ± SD)
Post-exercise
(Mean ± SD)
Between group
Effect size
(95%, CIs)
Between
group
p-value
Watson
et al.
2006 [35]
Memory
Attention/Executive function
SR
BVR
TMT
AE
CO
AE
CO
AE
CO
6.30 ± 1.15*
6.25 ± 1.10*
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
3.65 ± 1.15*
5.05 ± 1.15*
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
1.35 (0.48, 2.22)
Unable to be calculated
Unable to be calculated
0.01
Not significant
Not significant
Baker
et al.
2010 [38]
Information processing and executive function
Memory
VF
TMTB
TS
SCWI
SOPT
SR
LR
AE
CO
AE
CO
AE
CO
AE
CO
AE
CO
AE
CO
AE
CO
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Unable to be calculated
Unable to be calculated
Unable to be calculated
Unable to be calculated
Unable to be calculated
Unable to be calculated
Unable to be calculated
0.11
0.04
0.03
0.04
0.10
Not significant
Not significant
Yanagawa et al.
2011 [39]
Memory
Information processing and executive function
Global cognitive function
WLIM
WLDM
WAIS-DST
TMTA
Stroop
TMTB
MMSE
AE
CO
AE
CO
AE
CO
AE
CO
AE
CO
AE
CO
AE
CO
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
Not reported
0.59 (−0.42, 0.60)
0.08 (−0.90, 1.07)
0.38 (−0.62, 1.38)
0.46 (−0.54, 1.46)
0.14 (−0.84, 1.13)
0.60 (−0.41, 0.41)
0.02 (−0.97, 1.00)
0.31
1.00
0.79
0.53
0.27
0.27
0.96
Lehtisalo et al.
2016 [40]
Overall cognitive performance
Executive function
CERAD
TMTB
AE
CO
AE
CO
8.3 ± 9
Not reported
48.6 ± 9.6
Not reported
Unable to be calculated
Unable to be calculated
Unable to be calculated
Unable to be calculated
Not significant
Not significant
  1. Data with an asterisk were estimated from graphic values provided using the Matlab software. Between-group and/or intra-group effect sizes (ESs) were calculated for both groups. Between group effect size = (Change in Treatment – Change in Control) / Pooled baseline SD [33]. Intra-group effect size = (post-exercise - pre-exercise) / pooled baseline SD [34]. Data are presented as mean ± SD and effect size and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for age, BMI and years of education
  2. SD standard deviation, ES effect size, CIs confidence intervals, AE aerobic exercise, CO control, SR Story Recall (Story Recall (immediate recall and delayed recall), BVR Benton Visual Retention, TMT Trail Making Test, SIT Stroop Interface Test, VF Verbal Fluency, TMTA Trail Making Test A, TMTB Trail Making Test B, TS Task Switching, SCWI Stroop Color-Word Interference, SOPT Self-Ordered Pointing Test, LR Learning Recall, WLIM Word List Immediate Memory a subtest of the Alzheimer’s disease Assessment Scale, WLDM Word List Delayed Memory a subtest of the Alzheimer’s disease Assessment Scale, DST Digit Symbol Test a subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination (maximal score = 0–30), CERAD Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease
  3. The Finnish CERAD Battery is composed of 1) Verbal fluency (animals) 2) Modified Boston Naming test (15 words) 3) Mini-Mental State Exam 4) Word List Memory (ten words, three trials) 5) Constructional praxis 6) Word List Recall (delayed recall of the ten words) 7) Word List Recognition (recognition of the ten words out of 20 words) 8) Constructional praxis recall 9) Clock drawing
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