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Table 1 Summary of the characteristics of the included studies. Citations of studies that reported results on domains are listed after the domain

From: Physical activity monitors to enhance amount of physical activity in older adults – a systematic review and meta-analysis

Methods Number of studies (%)
 RCT with parallel group design [11,12,13,14,15,16, 23,24,25, 31, 32, 34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42] 20 (95%)
 RCT with cross over design [33] 1 (5%)
Setting Number of studies (%)
 Europe [12, 13, 23, 24, 31, 32, 35, 38] 8 (38%)
 Australia and New Zealand [14, 16, 25, 37] 4 (19%)
 Asia [15, 36, 40, 41] 4 (19%)
 North America [11, 33, 34, 39, 42] 5 (24%)
Participant diagnoses Number of studies (%)
 Osteoarthritis [23] 1 (5%)
 COPD [12, 31, 36] 3 (14%)
 Cardiac patients [16, 40] 2 (10%)
 None [11, 13,14,15, 24, 25, 32,33,34,35, 37,38,39, 41, 42] 15 (71%)
Participant characteristics Median (range)
 Median age in studies (k = 21) 70.5 (65 to 81.5)
 Median body mass index in studies [11, 12, 14, 15, 23, 25, 31, 35, 36, 39, 40, 42] 27.9 (21.1 to 31.82)
 Median percentage of male participants in studies [11,12,13,14,15,16, 23,24,25, 31, 33,34,35,36, 38,39,40,41,42] 42 (0 to 88)
 Median percentage of married participants [13, 16, 24, 25, 32, 35, 39] 61.4 (39 to 80.5)
 Median baseline daily step count [11,12,13, 15, 23, 31, 33,34,35, 39, 41] 5268 (2420 to 7697)
Intervention Median (range)
 Length median weeks (k = 21) 12 (4 to 52)
Physical activity monitor Number of studies (%)
 Accelerometer [12, 14, 32, 36, 41] 5 (24%)
 Pedometer [11, 13, 15, 16, 23,24,25, 31, 33,34,35, 37,38,39,40, 42] 16 (76%)
Frequency of feedback Number of studies (%)
 Daily [11,12,13, 15, 16, 23,24,25, 32, 33, 35, 37,38,39,40,41,42] 17 (81%)
 Weekly [14, 31, 33] 3 (14%)
 Monthly [36] 1 (5%)
Outcomes Number of studies (%)
 Reported results on physical activity [11,12,13,14,15,16, 23,24,25, 31,32,33,34,35,36, 38,39,40,41,42] 20 (95%)
 Reported results on sedentary time [13] 1 (5%)
 Reported results on MVPA time [14, 24, 25, 31, 35, 41, 42] 7 (33%)
 Reported results on physical capacity [24, 36, 37, 41] 4 (19%)
 Reported results on health-related quality of life [13, 24, 25, 31, 36] 5 (24%)
 Reported results on body mass index [25, 36] 3 (14%)
 Reported results on adverse events [13, 14, 16, 24, 31, 32, 35,36,37, 40] 10 (48%)
  1. RCT Randomized Controlled Trial, COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, MVPA Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity, k number of studies. The reported median of mean values are unweighted in relation to study size or reporting precision