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Table 2 Stratified analyses of changes in FGF2 and VEGF between high and moderate volume exercise groups in BETA (n = 386)

From: The impact of exercise on growth factors (VEGF and FGF2): results from a 12-month randomized intervention trial

Stratification variables Prescribed exercise duration n 6 months percent change from baseline 12 months percent change from baseline Treatment effect a Between-group P b
Ratio of HIGH:MOD 95% CI
FGF2
Time at high intensity c
  < 60% prescribed MODERATE 17 2.0 4.9 1.03 0.91–1.17 0.62
HIGH 44 0.4 0.3   
  ≥ 60% prescribed MODERATE 41 0.9 −5.6 1.01 0.92–1.12 0.78
HIGH 36 −7.4 2.3   
BMI d
  < 30 MODERATE 116 9.0 6.8 0.99 0.94, 1.05 0.83
HIGH 121 4.0 5.2   
  ≥ 30 MODERATE 75 5.1 2.2 0.95 0.88, 1.02 0.13
HIGH 74 −7.3 6.3   
VO2max level e
  < 27.2 ml/kg min MODERATE 93 8.2 1.3 0.94 0.88, 1.00 0.05
HIGH 98 −2.2 8.2   
  ≥ 27.2 ml/kg min MODERATE 98 6.7 8.5 1.02 0.96, 1.08 0.56
HIGH 97 1.2 3.1   
Total body fat f
  < 29.7 kg MODERATE 94 9.2 5.5 1.02 0.96, 1.08 0.53
HIGH 99 1.2 3.0   
  ≥ 29.7 kg MODERATE 97 5.8 4.5 0.94 0.88, 1.00 0.04
HIGH 96 −2.2 8.5   
 VEGF
Time at high intensity
  < 60% prescribed MODERATE 17 −6.5 11.0 1.04 0.83–1.31 0.72
HIGH 44 5.0 7.2   
  ≥ 60% prescribed MODERATE 41 −8.0 3.2 0.90 0.73–1.10 0.28
HIGH 36 −6.0 −16.8   
BMI
  < 30 MODERATE 116 −4.1 6.0 0.90 0.80, 1.01 0.06
HIGH 121 −10.4 −10.6   
  ≥ 30 MODERATE 75 1.5 0.3 1.01 0.88, 1.15 0.90
HIGH 74 1.4 2.9   
VO2max level
  < 27.2 ml/kg min MODERATE 93 4.0 1.9 0.93 0.82, 1.06 0.29
HIGH 98 −1.8 −6.7    
  ≥ 27.2 ml/kg min MODERATE 98 −7.2 5.7 0.94 0.83, 1.06 0.30
HIGH 97 −10.2 −5.1   
Total body fat
  < 29.7 kg MODERATE 94 −7.7 4.5 0.92 0.80, 1.06 0.25
HIGH 99 −9.1 −10.5    
  ≥ 29.7 kg MODERATE 97 4.0 3.1 0.95 0.85, 1.06 0.39
HIGH 96 −3.0 −0.3   
  1. a. HIGH:MODERATE ratio of geometric means for biomarker levels over 12 months adjusted for biomarker level at baseline. A ratio < 1.0 indicates lower biomarker concentrations in the HIGH exercise group at 6 and 12 months; a ratio > 1.0 indicates lower biomarker concentrations in the MODERATE exercise group; a ratio equal to 1.0 indicates no difference in biomarker concentrations between the HIGH and MODERATE exercise groups
  2. b. P for testing the HIGH-MODERATE group difference over 12 months from the linear mixed model, adjusted for biomarker level at baseline
  3. c. Included n = 138 women for whom, across weeks 13–52 (at full prescription), average adherence in the exercise logs was 90–100% in the MODERATE group (135–150 min/week; n = 58) or ≥ 90% in the HIGH group (≥270 min/week; n = 80). Time at high intensity was defined as time exercising at an intensity of 60–80% heart rate reserve averaged for each participant over 52 weeks. Cut points for the stratified analysis were 60% of the prescribed durations, i.e., 90 min/week in the MODERATE group and 180 min/week in the HIGH group
  4. d. Body mass index at baseline
  5. e. Cut point of the baseline VO2max level for the stratified analysis were the median value for all study participants (MODERATE and HIGH group)
  6. f. Cut point of the baseline total body fat level for the stratified analysis were the median value for all study participants (MODERATE and HIGH group)