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Table 1 Overview of the population characteristics and resistance exercises and/or resistance training characteristics of the reviewed studies

From: Functional and/or structural brain changes in response to resistance exercises and resistance training lead to cognitive improvements – a systematic review

First author [ref.] Study design and sample characteristics Resistance exercise characteristics
  (1) Design / Comparison groups (2) Participants characteristics (2.1) Number of participants (N) (N female / N male), [included in fMRI or EEG], gender / mean age in years ± SD (2.2) Mean height in cm ± SD / mean body mass in kg ± SD / BMI ± SD in kg/m2 (3) Cognitive status / disability status (1) Muscle action (2) Load, number of sets, and number of repetitions (3) Inter-set rest periods and inter-exercise rest periods (4) Repetition velocity (5) Resistance exercise selection (6) Duration of an exercise session (7) Training frequency (8) Training density (9) Training duration (10) Training setting
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy
 Chang et al. [43] (1) IS (RCT, between-group design) / CON (n), HIRE, MIC, HIA (2) Healthy young adults (2.1) - CON: N = 9 (9 f / 0 m) / 21.8 ± 1.4   - HIRE: N = 9 (9 f / 0 m) / 21.1 ± 1.6   - MIC: N = 9 (9 f / 0 m) / 20.4 ± 1.5   - HIA: N = 9 (9 f / 0 m) / 22.1 ± 1.4 (2.2) - CON: 160.8 ± 4.1 / 52.2 ± 6.2 / 20.3 ± 3.1   - HIRE: 162.1 ± 5.0 / 56.3 ± 5.0 / 21.4 ± 1.8   - MIC: 162.9 ± 5.5 / 56.4 ± 5.8 / 21.2 ± 1.3   - HIA: 166.0 ± 5.3 / 59.6 ± 5.7 / 21.6 ± 2.1 (3) N.A. (1) Dynamic (2) 3 sets with 8 to 10 repetitions per exercise at 80% of 1RM (3) Work to rest ratio of 1:2 (4) N.A. (5) Machines and free weights (e.g., leg extension, leg curl, lat pull-down, seated row, squat, bench press, and arm curl) (6) Ca. 40 min (10 min warm-up, 30 min exercising) (7) One single session (8) N.A. (9) N.A. (10) Individual and supervised
 Coetsee et al. [44] (1) IS (RCT, between-group design) / CON (n), HIIT, MCT, RT (2) Healthy older adults (2.1) - CON: N = 19 (11 f / 8 m) / 62.5 ± 5.6   - HIIT: N = 13 (10 f / 3 m) / 64.5 ± 6.3   - MCT: N = 13 (10 f / 3 m) / 61.6 ± 5.8   - RT: N = 22 (15 f / 7 m) / 62.4 ± 5.1 (2.2) - CON: 168.7 ± 7.9 / 76.8 ± 13.7 / 26.9 ± 3.7   - HIIT: 166.0 ± 8.9 / 73.8 ± 13.7 / 26.6 ± 4.0   - MCT: 163.5 ± 8.6 / 71.0 ± 14.4 / 26.5 ± 4.2   - RT: 167.8 ± 7.8 / 73.3 ± 15.5 / 25.8 ± 4.0 (3) MOCA score   - CON: 28.2 ± 1.6   - HIIT: 27.9 ± 1.5   - MCT: 27.6 ± 1.3   - RT: 27.5 ± 1.3 (1) Dynamic (2) 3 sets with 10 repetitions per exercise at 50, 75, and 100% of 10RM (first 8 weeks) / at 75, 85, and 100% of 10RM (second 8 weeks) (3) N.A. (4) N.A. (5) Machines and free weights (e.g., upper and lower body resistance exercises) (6) Ca. 30 min (+ warm-up and cool-down) (7) 3 days/week (8) N.A. (9) 16 weeks (10) Group-based and supervised
Electroencephalography
 Hong et al. [188] (1) IS (RCT, between-group design) / CON (n), RT (2) Healthy older adults / older adults with MCI (2.1) - HOA CON: N = 13 (6 f / 7 m) / 73.5 ± 5.6 (f); 73.0 ± 4.8 (m)   - HOA RT: N = 12 (10 f / 2 m) / 75.8 ± 4.5 (f); 76.5 ± 6.4 (m)   - MCI CON: N = 12 (9 f / 3 m) / 75.1 ± 4.5 (f); 78.3 ± 5.5 (m)   - MCI RT: N = 10 (7 f / 3 m) / 75.1 ± 4.5 (f); 78.3 ± 5.5 (m) (2.2) - HOA CON: N.A. / 49.7 ± 4.5 (f); 63.4 ± 10.7 (m) / N.A.   - HOA RT: N.A. / 57.3 ± 8.4 (f); 68.9 ± 4.7 / N.A.   - MCI CON: N.A. / 56.3 ± 5.4 (f); 57.2 ± 7.6 (m) / N.A.   - MCI RT: N.A. / 54.1 ± 7.6 (f); 65.0 ± 3.3 / N.A. (3) MOCA score   - HOA CON: 26.0 ± 1.7 (f) / 26.3 ± 1.6 (m)   - HOA RT: 26.4 ± 1.7 (f) / 25.0 ± 1.4 (m)   - MCI CON: 18.8 ± 5.6 (f) / 21.3 ± 2.4 (m)   - MCI RT: 20.0 ± 4.0 (f) / 22.3 ± 1.2 (m) (1) Dynamic (2) 15 repetitions per exercise correspond to ca. 65% of 1RM (3) N.A. (4) N.A. (5) Elastic bands (6) Ca. 60 min (10 min warm-up, 40 min exercising, 10 min cool-down) (7) 2 days/week (8) N.A. (9) 12 weeks (10) N.A.
 Özkaya et al. [194] (1) IS (RCT, between-group design) / CON (n), AT, RT (2) Healthy older adults (2.1) - CON: N = 12 (N.A.) / 72.3 ± 2.1   - AT N = 12 (N.A.) / 70.9 ± 3.1   - RT: N = 12 (N.A.) / 75.8 ± 2.8 (2.2) - CON: N.A. / N.A. / 29.5 ± 1.3   - AT: N.A. / N.A. / 29.1 ± 1.4   - RT: N.A. / N.A. / 31.2 ± 2.9 (3) MMSE score   - CON: 27.1 ± 0.6   - AT: 26.5 ± 0.6   - RT: 25.6 ± 0.7 (1) Dynamic (2) 1 set of 12 repetitions per exercise at 60% of 1RM (in the first week); 3 sets of 12 repetitions per exercise at 60% of 1RM (in the second week); increase in load of 5% every 2 weeks until participants lifted 80% of 1RM (3) N.A. (4) N.A. (5) Free weights (e.g., hip extension, knee flexion, seated lower-leg lift, chair squat, arm raise, biceps curl, and abdominal crunch) (6) N.A. (10 min warm-up, N.A., 10 min cool-down) (7) 3 days/week (8) N.A. (9) 9 weeks (10) Group-based and supervised
 Tsai et al. [182] (1) IS (RCT, between-group design) / CON (r), HIRE, MIRE (2) Healthy young adults (2.1) - CON: N = 20 (0 f / 20 m) / 23.2 ± 2.1   - MIRE: N = 20 (0 f / 20 m) / 23.2 ± 2.5   - HIRE: N = 20 (0 f / 20 m) / 22.4 ± 2.4 (2.2) - CON: N.A. / N.A. / 22.0 ± 2.6   - MIRE: N.A. / N.A. / 20.8 ± 1.5   - HIRE: N.A. / N.A. / 21.5 ± 1.8 (3) MMSE score   - CON: 28.9 ± 0.9   - MIRE: 29.1 ± 1.0   - HIRE: 29.3 ± 1.0 (1) Dynamic (2) 2 sets of 10 repetitions per exercise at 50% of 1 RM in MIRT and at 80% of 1RM in HIRT (3) 90 s between sets / 2 min between exercises (4) “average speed” (5) Machines and free weights (e.g., bench presses, biceps curls, triceps extensions, leg presses, vertical butterflies, and leg extensions) (6) Ca. 40 min (10 min warm-up, 30 min exercising) (7) One single session (8) N.A. (9) N.A. (10) Individual and supervised
 Tsai et al. [187] (1) IS (RCT, between-group design) / CON (n), RT (2) Older adults (2.1) - CON: N = 24 (0 f / 24 m) / 72.0 ± 4.1   - RT: N = 24 (0 f / 24 m) / 70.8 ± 3.4 (2.2) - CON: N.A. / N.A. / 24.6 ± 3.6   - RT: N.A. / N.A. / 26.0 ± 2.5 (3) MMSE score   - CON: 28.2 ± 1.0   - RT: 28.0 ± 1.2 (1) Dynamic (2) 3 sets of 10 repetitions per exercise at 75 to 80% of 1RM (3) 90 s between sets / 3 min between exercises (4) “average speed” (5) Machines and free weights (e.g., biceps curls, leg presses, triceps extensions, hamstring curls, latissimus dorsi pull-downs, calf raises, seated rowing) (6) Ca. 60 min (10 min warm-up, 40 min exercising, 10 min cool-down) (7) 3 days/week (8) N.A. (9) 48 weeks (10) Group-based and supervised
 Tsai et al. [195] (1) IS (RCT, between-group design) / CON (r), AE, RE (2) Older adults with amnestic MCI (2.1) - CON: N = 20 (12 f / 8 m) / 64.5 ± 7.0   - AE: N = 25 (14 f / 11 m) / 65.5 ± 7.5   - RE: N = 21 (12 f / 9 m) / 66.1 ± 6.6 (2.2) - CON: 159.7 ± 8.81 / 61.4 ± 13.0 / 23.8 ± 3.1   - AE: 160.6 ± 7.85 / 62.1 ± 13.7 / 23.8 ± 3.2   - RE: 159.9 ± 8.51 / 62.1 ± 12.1 / 24.5 ± 3.2 (3) MMSE score   - CON: 27.00 ± 1.59   - AE: 26.96 ± 1.21   - RE: 26.76 ± 1.38 (1) Dynamic (2) 2 sets of 10 repetitions per exercise at 75% of 1RM (3) 90 s between sets / 2 min between exercises (4) “average speed” (5) Machines and free weights (e.g., biceps curls, triceps extensions, bench presses, leg presses, leg extensions, and vertical butterflies) (6) Ca. 40 min (5 min warm-up, 30 min exercising, 5 min cool-down) (7) One single session (8) N.A. (9) N.A. (10) Individual and supervised
 Tsai et al. [191] (1) IS (RCT, between-group design) / BAST, AT, RT (2) Older adults with amnestic MCI (2.1) - CON: N = 18 (13 f / 5 m) / 65.2 ± 7.0   - AT: N = 19 (14 f / 5 m) / 66.0 ± 7.7   - RT: N = 18 (11 f / 7 m) / 65.4 ± 6.8 (2.2) - CON: N.A. / N.A. / 23.4 ± 2.8   - AT: N.A. / N.A. / 23.5 ± 3.3   - RT: N.A. / N.A. / 24.4 ± 3.1 (3) MMSE score   - CON: 27.00 ± 1.65   - AT: 27.16 ± 1.26   - RT: 26.56 ± 1.34 (1) Dynamic (2) 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 60 to 70% of 1RM in the first 2 weeks and at 75% of 1RM in the remaining weeks (3) 90 s between sets / 2 min between exercises (4) N.A. (5) Machines and free weights (e.g., biceps curls, vertical butterflies, leg press, seated rowing, hamstring curls, and calf raises) (6) Ca. 40 min (5 min warm-up, 30 min exercising, 5 min cool-down) (7) 3 days/week (8) N.A. (9) 16 weeks (10) Group-based and supervised
 Vonk et al. [183] (1) IS (RCT, within-subject design) / RE, LM (2) Healthy younger adults (2.1) N = 20 (11 f / 9 m) / 23.0 ± 2.0 (2.2) N.A. (3) N.A. (1) Dynamic (2) 2 sets of 10 repetitions at 70% of 10RM (3) 60 s between sets / 90 min between exercises (4) N.A. (5) Machines and free weights (e.g., leg press, pull-down, hamstring curls, vertical chest press, bilateral bicep curl, bilateral triceps extension) (6) Ca. 30 min (5 min warm-up, ca. 25 min exercising) (7) Two separate sessions (RE and LM) (8) N.A. (9) N.A. (10) Individual and supervised
 Yerokhin et al. [192] (1) IS (no RCT, between-group design) / RT (2) Healthy older adults (2.1) - RT: N = 9 [5] (1 f / 8 m) / 62.8 ± 7.2 (2.2) - RT: N.A. / N.A. / N.A. Individuals with early dementia (2.1) - RT: N = 13 [9] (0 f /13 m) / 79.3 ± 11.0 (2.2) - RT: N.A. / N.A. / N.A. (3) MMSE score - N.A. in both groups (1) Dynamic (2) N.A. (detailed information can be found in Seguin et al., [196]) (3) N.A. (detailed information can be found in Seguin et al., [196]) (4) N.A. (detailed information can be found in Seguin et al., [196]) (5) Small free weights and body weight (e.g., different exercise such as squat, toe stands, [detailed information could be found in Seguin et al., [196]) (6) Ca. 45 min (7) 3 to 5 days/week (8) N.A. (9) 10 weeks (10) Supervised (older adults with early dementia) / individual and home-based (HC)
Functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging
 Best et al. [184] (1) IS (RCT, between-group design) / BAT, 1x RT, 2x RT (2) Older adults (2.1) - BAT: N = 49 [25/18/8] (49 f / 0 m) / 70.0 ± 3.3   - 1x RT: N = 54 [32/29/10] (54 f / 0 m) / 69.5 ± 2.7   - 2x RT: N = 52 [26/21/9] (52 f / 0 m) / 69.4 ± 3.0 (2.2) - BAT: 161.0 ± 6.9 / 67.0 ± 11.5 / N.A.   - 1x RT: 160.9 ± 7.0 / 69.2 ± 16.2 / N.A.   - 2x RT: 162.8 ± 6.5 / 72.1 ± 16.8 / N.A. (3) MMSE score   - BAT: 28.8 ± 1.2   - 1x RT: 28.5 ± 1.3   - 2x RT: 28.6 ± 1.5 (1) Dynamic (2) 2 sets of 6 to 8 repetitions of 7RM per exercise (progressively increased) (3) N.A. (4) N.A. (5) Exercises with pneumatic resistance machines (e.g., biceps curls, triceps extensions, seated rows, latissimus dorsi pull-downs, leg presses, hamstring curls, and calf raises) and free weights (e.g., mini-squats, mini-lunges, and lunge walks) (6) Ca. 60 min (10 min warm-up, 40 min exercising, 10 min cool-down) (7) 1 day/week (in 1x RT) or 2 days/week (in 2x RT) (8) One week-in-between (in 1x RT) / N.A. (in 2x RT) (9) 52 weeks (10) Group-based and supervised
 Brinke et al. [197] (1) IS (RCT, between-group-design) / BAT, AT, RT (2) Older adults with probable MCI (2.1) - BAT: N = 28 [13/11] (28 f / 0 m) / 75.5 ± 3.9   - AT: N = 30 [14/10] (30 f / 0 m) / 76.1 ± 3.4   - RT: N = 28 [12/8] (30 f / 0 m) / 73.8 ± 3.8 (2.2) - BAT: 157.5 ± 8.1 / 64.8 ± 13.8 / N.A.   - AT: 158.8 ± 5.8 / 61.7 ± 6.8 / N.A.   - RT: 161.6 ± 8.1 / 63.3 ± 7.5 / N.A. (3) MMSE score   - BAT: 27.17 ± 1.85   - AT: 27.54 ± 1.51   - RT: 26.67 ± 2.64 (1) Dynamic (2) 2 sets of 6 to 8 repetitions of 7RM per exercise (progressively increased) (3) N.A. (4) N.A. (5) Exercises with pneumatic resistance machines (e.g., biceps curls, triceps extensions, seated rows, latissimus dorsi pull-downs, leg presses, hamstring curls, and calf raises) and free weights (e.g., mini-squats, mini-lunges, and lunge walks) (6) Ca. 60 min (10 min warm-up, 40 min exercising, 10 min cool-down) (7) 2 days/week (8) N.A. (9) 26 weeks (10) Group-based and supervised
 Bolandzadeh et al. [185] (1) IS (RCT, between-group design) / BAT, 1x RT, 2x RT (2) Older adults (2.1) - BAT: N = 15 [11] (15 f / 0 m) / 69.3 ± 2.8   - 1x RT: N = 22 [18] (22 f / 0 m) / 69.6 ± 2.6   - 2x RT: N = 17 [13] (17 f / 0 m) / 69.2 ± 3.1 (2.2) - BAT: 162.9 ± 5.8 / 69.5 ± 9.4 / N.A.   - 1x RT: 160.7 ± 6.4 / 68.2 ± 14.6 / N.A.   - 2x RT: 161.3 ± 7.4 / 68.1 ± 12.5 / N.A. (3) MMSE (MOCA) score   - BAT: 28.7 (24.4) ± 1.3 (3.5)   - 1x RT: 28.9 (25.8) ± 1.0 (2.9)   - 2x RT: 28.8 (25.6) ± 1.8 (2.9) (1) Dynamic (2) 2 sets of 6 to 8 repetitions of 7RM per exercise (progressively increased) (3) N.A. (4) N.A. (5) Exercises with pneumatic resistance machines (e.g., biceps curls, triceps extensions, seated rows, latissimus dorsi pull-downs, leg presses, hamstring curls, and calf raises) and free weights (e.g., mini-squats, mini-lunges, and lunge walks) (6) Ca. 60 min (10 min warm-up, 40 min exercising, 10 min cool-down) (7) 1 day/week (in 1x RT) or 2 days/week (in 2x RT) (8) One week-in-between (in 1x RT) / N.A. (in 2x RT) (9) 52 weeks (10) Group-based and supervised
 Kjølhede et al. [193] (1) IS (RCT, cross-over design) / WL, RT (2) Adults with multiple sclerosis (2.1) - WL: N = 17 [12] (N.A.)   - RT: N = 18 [17] (N.A.)   - mean of both groups: 43.2 ± 8.1 (2.2) - mean of both groups: 171.0 ± 8.0 / 75.0 ± 13.0 / N.A. (3) EDSS score   - WL: 2.9 ± 0.2   - RT: 2.9 ± 0.2 (1) Dynamic (2) Progressively increased with adjustment in sets, repetitions, load [detailed information can be found in Kjølhede et al. [198] (3) 2 to 3 min [detailed information can be found in Kjølhede et al. [198] (4) N.A. (5) Exercises with resistance machines (e.g., horizontal leg press, hip flexion, leg extension, prone hamstring curl, cable pull-down and cable triceps extension) (6) N.A. (7) 2 days/ week (8) N.A. (9) 24 weeks (10) Group-based and supervised
 Liu-Ambrose et al. [186] (1) IS (RCT, between-group design) / BAT, 1x RT, 2x RT (2) Older adults (2.1) - BAT: N = 49 [20/18] (49 f / 0 m) / 70.0 ± 3.3   - 1x RT: N = 54 [28] (54 f / 0 m) / 69.5 ± 2.7   - 2x RT: N = 52 [18] (52 f / 0 m) / 69.4 ± 3.0 (2.2) - BAT: 161.0 ± 6.9 / 67.0 ± 11.5 / N.A.   - 1x RT: 160.9 ± 7.0 / 69.2 ± 16.2 / N.A.   - 2x RT: 162.8 ± 6.5 / 72.1 ± 16.8 / N.A. (3) MMSE score   - BAT: 28.8 ± 1.2   - 1x RT: 28.5 ± 1.3   - 2x RT: 28.6 ± 1.5 (1) Dynamic (2) 2 sets of 6 to 8 repetitions of 7RM per exercise (progressively increased) (3) N.A. (4) N.A. (5) Exercises with pneumatic resistance machines (e.g., biceps curls, triceps extensions, seated rows, latissimus dorsi pull-downs, leg presses, hamstring curls, and calf raises) and free weights (e.g., mini-squats, mini-lunges, and lunge walks) (6) Ca. 60 min (10 min warm-up, 40 min exercising, 10 min cool-down) (7) 1 day/week (in 1x RT) or 2 days/week (8) One week-in-between (in 1x RT) / N.A. (in 2x RT) (9) 52 weeks (10) Group-based and supervised
 Liu-Ambrose et al. [45] (1) IS (RCT, between-group design) / BAT, 1x RT, 2x RT (2) Older adults (2.1) - BAT: N = 17 [17] (17 f / 0 m) / 69.2 ± 3.2   - 1x RT: N = 20 [20] (20 f / 0 m) / 69.7 ± 2.8   - 2x RT: N = 15 [15] (15 f / 0 m) / 68.9 ± 3.2 (2.2) - BAT: 162.4 ± 5.9 / 67.3 ± 9.5 / N.A.   - 1x RT: 161.7 ± 7.5 / 70.7 ± 13.8 / N.A.   - 2x RT: 162.7 ± 6.6 / 68.7 ± 10.9 / N.A. (3) MMSE score   - BAT: 29.1 ± 1.1   - 1x RT: 28.6 ± 1.2   - 2x RT: 29.1 ± 0.85 (1) Dynamic (2) 2 sets of 6 to 8 repetitions of 7RM per exercise (progressively increased) (3) N.A. (4) N.A. (5) Exercises with pneumatic resistance machines (e.g., biceps curls, triceps extensions, seated rows, latissimus dorsi pull-downs, leg presses, hamstring curls, and calf raises) and free weights (e.g., mini-squats, mini-lunges, and lunge walks) (6) Ca. 60 min (10 min warm-up, 40 min exercising, 10 min cool-down) (7) 1 day/week (in 1x RT) or 2 days/week (in 2x RT) (8) One week-in-between (in 1x RT) / N.A. (in 2x RT) (9) 52 weeks (10) Group-based and supervised
 Nagamatsu et al. [189] (1) IS (RCT, between-group design) / BAT, 2x AT, 2x RT (2) Older adults with probable mild cognitive impairment and subjective memory complaints (2.1) - BAT: N = 28 [8] (28 f / 0 m) / 75.1 ± 3.6   - AT: N = 30 [7] (30 f / 0 m) / 75.6 ± 3.6   - RT: N = 28 [7] (28 f / 0 m) / 73.9 ± 3.5 (2.2) - BAT: 158.2 ± 7.3 / 66.4 ± 14.0 / N.A.   - AT: 159.2 ± 5.9 / 64.8 ± 12.8 / N.A.   - RT: 158.7 ± 7.0 / 65.2 ± 10.7 / N.A. (3) MMSE (MOCA) score   - BAT: 27.1 (22.5) ± 1.7 (2.8)   - AT: 27.4 (22.2) ± 1.5 (2.8)   - RT: 27.0 (21.4) ± 1.8 (1.3) (1) Dynamic (2) 2 sets of 6 to 8 repetitions of 7RM per exercise (progressively increased) (3) N.A. (4) N.A. (5) Exercises with pneumatic resistance machines (e.g., biceps curls, triceps extensions, seated rows, latissimus dorsi pull-downs, leg presses, hamstring curls, and calf raises) and free weights (e.g., mini-squats, mini-lunges, and lunge walks) (6) Ca. 60 min (10 min warm-up, 40 min exercising, 10 min cool-down) (7) 2 days/week (8) N.A. (9) 52 weeks (10) Group-based and supervised
 Suo et al. [190] (1) IS (RCT, between-group design) / SHAM, RE + SHAM, RE + CCT, CCT + SHAM (2) Older adults with dementia prodrome mild cognitive impairment (2.1) - ALL: N = 100 (68 f / 32 m) / 70.1 ± 6.7 (55–87)   - SHAM: N = 27 [22] (N.A.)   - RE + SHAM: N = 22 [19] (N.A.)   - RE + CCT: N = 27 [22] (N.A.)   - CCT + SHAM: N = 24 [20] (N.A.) (2.2) - N.A. (3) MMSE score   - ALL: 24–28 (29 was acceptable only if error noted in memory registration) (1) Dynamic (2) 5 to 6 exercises with 3 sets of 8 repetitions per exercise at 80 to 92% of 1RM (3) N.A. (4) N.A. (5) Exercises with pneumatic resistance machines (e.g., chest press, leg press, seated row, standing hip abduction, knee extension, hip flexion, hip extension, calf raise) and free weights (e.g., lateral raise, biceps curls) (6) Ca. 90 min (7) 2 days/week (8) N.A. (9) 26 weeks (10) Group-based and supervised
  1. Please note that the sham treatments in Suo et al. [190] were conducted as follows: (i) the cognitive training group (CCT + SHAM) included physical exercises that did not significantly increase heart rate or improve aerobic capacity balance or strength performance (e.g., stretching, toning, and seated calisthenics), and (ii) the resistances exercise group (RE + SHAM) included a computerized, active cognitive control training
  2. AE Aerobic exercises, AT Aerobic training, BAT Balance and toning exercise, BAST Balance and stretching training, BMI Body mass index, cm Centimeters, CON (n) Non-exercising control group, CON (r) Control group read magazines, EDSS Expanded disability status scale, f Female, HIA High-intensity aerobic exercise, HIIT High-intensity aerobic interval training, HIRE High-intensity resistance exercises, HIRT High-intensity resistance training, HOA Healthy older adults, kg Kilogram, LM Loadless movement group, MCI Mild cognitive impairments, MIC Moderate-intensity exercise combining resistance training and walking, MCT Moderate continuous aerobic training, MIRE Moderate-intensity resistance exercises, m Male, min Minute, MMSE Mini-mental state examination, MOCA Montreal cognitive assessment, N Number of participants, N.A. Not applicable, RCT Randomized controlled trials, RM Repetition maximum, RE Resistance exercises, RT Resistance training, SD Standard deviation, WL Wait list