Skip to main content

Table 3 Overview of exercise variables and training variables [60, 113, 354,355,356]

From: Functional and/or structural brain changes in response to resistance exercises and resistance training lead to cognitive improvements – a systematic review

Variables for structuring a single resistance exercise session (exercise variables)
 (i) Load (amount of weight that is used for an exercise; usually given as a percentage of the one repetition maximum [1RM])
 (ii) Number of repetitions
 (iii) Number of sets
 (iv) Inter-set rest period
 (v) Inter-exercise rest period
 (vi) Number of exercises (for the whole training session or for a muscle or a muscle group with the same function)
 (vii) Repetition velocity (with respect to the conducted resistance exercise and the starting position, temporal details should be given as follows: i.e., biceps curls starting with fully extended arms [e.g., bench press starting with fully extended arms]: concentric phase [eccentric phase] – inter-repetition rest periods – eccentric phase [concentric phase] – rest period up to the start of the next repetition, e.g., 2–0–2–1 s)
 (viii) Muscle action (concentric, eccentric, isometric)
 (ix) Exercise selection (e.g., multi-joint or single-joint exercises)
 (x) Exercise order (e.g., squat, leg extension, biceps curl, and concentration curl or squat, biceps curl, leg extension, and concentration curl)
 (xi) Volitional muscle failure
 (xii) Range of motion
Variables for structuring resistance training (training variables)
 (1.) Frequency (number of training sessions per week)
 (2.) Density (distribution of training sessions across a week with regard to recovery time in-between training sessions)
 (3.) Duration (duration over which a training program is carried out; e.g., before exercise variables will be changed)
  1. Please note, that some exercise variables are usually summarized into variables with different designations: e.g., volume [exercise variables (ii), (iii), and (iv)], time under tension [TUT, sum of the exercise variables (ii) and (vii)] or duration of an exercise session [depends on exercise variables (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), and the duration of warm-up and cool-down] [354, 356]