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Table 2 Spatiotemporal gait parameters

From: A taxonomy of cognitive tasks to evaluate cognitive-motor interference on spatiotemoporal gait parameters in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Gait – the medical term used to describe the locomotor movement of walking – is simple in terms of execution, but complex in terms of biomechanics and motor control [73]. During steady-state straight forward gait, commonly examined gait variables can be classified into parameters of rhythm (e.g. single and double support time or cadence) and pace (e.g. speed or stride length). This review follows the Guidelines for Assessment of Gait and Reference Values for Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters in Older Adults [73] by defining spatiotemporal gait parameters as:
 • Stride length: a stride is the distance from heel strike of one extremity to the next heel strike of the same extremity. Stride length is the distance that one part of a foot travels between the same instant in two consecutive gait cycles.
 • Step length: step length is the distance that one part of the foot travels in front of the same part of the other foot during each step.
 • Cadence: measure of the number of steps per unit time. Cadence increases if step length shortens when gait speed is held constant.
 • Walking speed: distance travelled divided by the ambulation time. Speed was expressed in centimetres per second (cm/sec).
 • Double support time: amount of time spent with both feet in contact with the ground. The gait cycle is divided into the stance phase, when the foot is in contact with the floor, and the swing phase, when it is not. The double support time is approximately 20% of the gait cycle during which both feet are in ground contact.