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Table 1 Examples of small groups with unequal baseline scores with experimental groups’ scores lower than the control group

From: Small samples and increased variability – discussing the need for restricted types of randomization in exercise interventions in old age

Study Population (Age) Measure Group (n) Pre-scores Post-scores
Rehfeld et al., 2017 [21] Healthy (63–80) Composite equilibrium score (balance) % Experimental (14) ~ 85.8 ~ 87.6
    Control (12) ~ 87.45 ~ 86.55
Gomes et al., 2018 [22] Frail and pre-frail (71–92) MiniBest (balance) total score Experimental (15) 14.5 (±6.22) 18.5 (±7.95)
    Control (15) 17.4 (±6.87) 17.3 (±5.68)
Gomes et al., 2018 [22] Frail and pre-frail (71–92) Functional gait assessment total score Experimental (15) 15.7 (±4.59) 18.8 (±5.75)
    Control (15) 17.1 (±6.32) 16.9 (±5.82)
Netz et al., 2007 [23] Healthy (50–64) Cognitive flexibility (Alternate Uses score) Experimental (40) – two experimental groups of 20 each – combined 14.62 (±4.86) 16.9 (±4.88)
    Control (18) 16.94 (± 6.25) 16.39 (± 5.1)