Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 The probabilities of inequalities after simple randomization in groups of older women, based on scores of selected functional tests

From: Small samples and increased variability – discussing the need for restricted types of randomization in exercise interventions in old age

     Probability for inequalities between experimental groups (mean difference ± SD)
Functional test Sample Expected mean ± SD Participants per group 10% difference 15% difference 20% difference
Timed Up and Go 60+ years 11.5 ± 2.7 s Ibrahim et al., 2017 [26] 15 24.3% (1.6 ± .4) 8.2% (2.1 ± .4) 2.0% (2.6 ± .3)
20 18.2% (1.5 ± .4) 4.4% (2.0 ± .3) .8% (2.5 ± .3)
25 13.3% (1.5 ± .3) 2.4% (2.0 ± .3) .3% (2.5 ± .2)
Normal Walking Speed 70–79 years 111.0 ± 21.0 cm/s Atkinson, 2007 [27] 15 14.9% (14.5 ± 3.1) 3.1% (19.4 ± 2.6) .4% (24.2 ± 2.3)
20 9.5% (13.8 ± 2.5) 1.3% (18.7 ± 2.0) .1% (23.7 ± 1.8)
25 6.2% (13.4 ± 2.1) .5% (18.3 ± 1.8) .01% (22.7 ± 1.5)
Functional Reach Hypertensive 80.3 ± 3.9 years 26.1 ± 6.5 cm Bohannon et al., 2017 [28] 15 27.4% (3.8 ± 1.0) 10.0% (4.9 ± .9) 2.8% (6.0 ± .8)
20 20.4% (3.6 ± .9) 5.7% (4.7 ± .7) 1.2% (5.8 ± .6)
25 15.8% (3.4 ± .7) 3.3% (4.6 ± .6) .5% (5.7 ± .5)
Sit-to-Stand 60–94 years 12.7 ± 4.0 reps/30s Rikli and Jones, 1999 [29] 15 38.8% (2.1 ± .7) 19.4% (2.6 ± .6) 8.5% (3.1 ± .6)
20 31.8% (1.9 ± .6) 13.5% (2.4 ± .5) 4.7% (3.0 ± .4)
25 26.3% (1.8 ± .5) 9.3% (2.4 ± .4) 2.6% (2.9 ± .4)
Handgrip Strength 75–79 years 48.2 ± 10.3 pounds Jansen et al., 2008 [30] 15 20.0% (6.6 ± 1.6) 5.6% (8.6 ± 1.3) 1.1% (10.7 ± 1.1)
20 13.9% (6.3 ± 1.3) 2.7% (8.3 ± 1.1) .34% (10.5 ± 1.0)
25 9.7% (6.0 ± 1.1) 1.3% (8.1 ± .9) .1% (10.3 ± .8)
Unipedal Balance Testa 65–69 years 28.2 ± 18.2 s Lohne-Seiler et al., 2016 [31] 15 64.1% (9.8 ± 4.6) 48.6% (11.3 ± 4.3) 35.3% (12.8 ± 4.0)
20 59.0% (8.9 ± 3.9) 42.2% (10.4 ± 3.6) 28.1% (12.0 ± 3.4)
25 55.0% (8.2 ± 3.4) 36.4% (9.8 ± 3.1) 22.9% (11.4 ± 2.9)
  1. aCalculated with the assumption of non-normal distribution due to the large SD