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Table 4 Number of participants required to reach equal groups at baseline in simple randomization (values are based on the expected mean ± SD for men and women presented in Tables 2 and 3)

From: Small samples and increased variability – discussing the need for restricted types of randomization in exercise interventions in old age

Functional Test Sample Allowed difference between groups # of men required per groupa # of women required per groupa
Timed Up and Go 60+ years 10% 42 44
15% 19 19
20% 11 11
Normal Walking Speed 70–79 years 10% 24 28
15% 11 13
20% 6 7
Functional Reach Hypertensive 80.3 ± 3.9 years 10% 51 48
15% 23 22
20% 13 13
Sit-to-Stand 60–94 years 10% 82 77
15% 37 35
20% 21 20
Handgrip Strength 75–79 years 10% 12 35
15% 6 16
20% 3 9
Unipedal Balance Testb 65–69 years 10% 262 264
15% 117 118
20% 66 67
  1. aProbability of no more than 5% inequality
  2. bCalculated with the assumption of non-normal distribution due to the large SD