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Table 1 Description, frequency of use, and effect sizes of motor assessments applied in previous randomised controlled trials

From: Recommended motor assessments based on psychometric properties in individuals with dementia: a systematic review

Motor assessment Description Frequency of use Time*group interaction effect size
 FICSIT-4 [49] Task: performing four different stances with eyes open for 10 seconds: (a) feet together, (b) semi-tandem, (c) tandem, (d) single-leg
Measurement: score [0–5], which rates performance according to ability to maintain stances
1 RCT (n = 109) [50]
 Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction of Balance [51] Task: standing on a platform (NeuroCom Balance Master) as quietly as possible for 10 seconds under four sensory conditions: eyes open and closed standing on firm surface and foam
Measurements: sway velocity [deg/s], composite score for all conditions
1 RCT (n = 40) [52]
 Limits of Stability [51] Task: standing on NeuroCom Balance Master and moving cursor from centre box directly to eight target boxes as fast and as close as possible by shifting weight
Measurements: reaction time [s], movement velocity [deg/s], maximum excursion [%], directional control [%], summary composite score
1 RCT (n = 40) [52]
 Physiomat-Trail-Making Task [53] Task: standing on Physiomat and connecting digits by shifting weight
Measurements: total duration [s], accuracy of sway path [digits/ms]
1 RCT (n = 84) [54]
 Physiomat-Follow-The-Ball Task [53] Task: standing on Physiomat and moving cursor from centre of screen directly to targets as fast as possible by shifting weight
Measurements: total duration [s], accuracy of sway path [digits/ms]
1 RCT (n = 84) [54]
 FR [55] Task: standing next to a wall, holding one arm parallel to a metre stick attached to the wall at shoulder height, and reaching forward as far as possible without losing balance or changing foot position
Measurement: distance from starting to end position [cm]
5 RCT (n = 204) [52, 56,57,58,59] Small to large c
 Hill Step Test [60] Task: stepping 1 foot onto a block and returning it to the floor as quickly as possible for 15 seconds
Measurement: number of repetitions
2 RCT (n = 54) [52, 61]
 Step Quick Turn Test [51] Task: taking two steps forward on NeuroCom Balance Master, quickly turning, and returning to starting point
Measurements: turn time [s], turn sway [deg/s]
1 RCT (n = 40) [52]
 Figure of Eight Test [62] Task: walking a lap of a standard figure-eight trajectory as quickly and accurately as possible
Measurements: walking speed [m/s], number of oversteps
1 RCT (n = 109) [50]
 GMWT [63] Task: walking over a meandering curved line as quickly and accurately as possible
Measurements: walking speed [m/s], number of oversteps
1 RCT (n = 109) [50]
 BBS [64] Task: 14-item functional balance assessment with simple everyday tasks (reaching, bending, transferring, standing, and rising), which are graded on a five-point ordinal scale (0 to 4)
Measurement: score [0–56]
11 RCT (n = 648) [56, 57, 65,66,67,68,69,70,71,72,73] Small to large c/r
 Modified BBS [64] Task: abbreviated version of the original 14-item BBS, excluding three items (chair-to-chair transfer, forward reach with outstretched arm, and alternate stepping on-off stool)
Measurement: score [0–44]
1 RCT (n = 23) [74]
 POMA [75] Task: scale with two parts, assessing balance (B) and gait (G)
(B) sitting balance, rising from a chair and sitting down, standing balance (with eyes open and closed), and turning balance
(G) gait initiation, step length and height, symmetry, continuity, path direction, and trunk sway
Measurements: total score [0–28], balance score [0–16], gait score [0–12]
7 RCT (n = 300) [68, 70, 76,77,78,79,80] No to large c/r
Mobility and gait
 TUG [81] Task: standing up from a chair, walking three metres, turning around, walking back to chair, and sitting down
Measurements: time [s], number of steps
16 RCT (n = 1001) [50, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 70, 73, 78, 79, 82,83,84,85,86] No to large c/r
 Cognitive TUG [87] Task: TUG with additional cognitive task (counting backwards by threes/evoke names of animals)
Measurement: time [s]
2 RCT (n = 60) [52, 56]
 Manual TUG [25, 87] Task: TUG with additional manual task (carrying a glass of water)
Measurement: time [s]
1 RCT (n = 40) [52]
 6 m WT [88] Task: walking six metres with comfortable pace
Measurements: walking speed [m/s], step length [m]
3 RCT (n = 379) [50, 71, 89]
 4 m WT [88] Task: walking four metres with comfortable pace
Measurement: walking speed [m/s]
2 RCT (n = 244) [90, 91] Small c/r
 Instrumented gait analysis [92] Task: walking with comfortable/fast pace over an electronic walkway (GAITRite, Bessou locometer, NeuroCom Balance Master)
Measurements: walking speed [cm/s, m/s], cadence [steps/min], stride/step length [cm, m], stride time [s], double/single support [% of stride time], double limb support time [s], step width [cm], step time variability [CV], Walk-Ratio [step length/cadence]
6 RCT (n = 370) [52, 78, 93,94,95,96] Small to large c/r
 5x STS [97] Task: performing five repetitions of the STS task without upper extremity assistance
Measurement: time [s]
7 RCT (n = 358) [52, 58, 68, 77, 78, 94, 98] No to large c/r
 STS on NeuroCom Balance Master [51] Task: standing up from a seated position without upper extremity assistance
Measurements: rising index [% of body weight], centre of gravity sway velocity [deg/s]
1 RCT (n = 40) [52]
 ACSID [99] Task: performing five repetitions of the STS task without upper extremity assistance while motor and cognitive aspects of movement process are qualitatively rated
Measurements: total score [0–10], sub scores ‘recall and initiation’ [0–5], ‘effective performance’ [0–5]
1 RCT (n = 77) [100] Large c/r
 30s CST [17, 101] Task: performing as many repetitions of STS task as possible in 30 s
Modified version: use of upper extremity assistance is allowed
Measurement: number of repetitions
5 RCT (n = 408) [56, 71, 74, 80, 84]
Modified: 1 RCT (n = 109) [50]
Large c/r
 Handgrip dynamometer [102] Task: putting maximum force on a dynamometer
Measurement: maximum handgrip strength [KPa, kg]
3 RCT (n = 263) [67, 78, 94] No r
 Maximum isometric strength assessed with dynamometers [103] Task: pushing as hard as possible against a dynamometer after adopting a standardised position
Measurements: maximum strength [N] and integral over time [Ns] for knee extension, knee flexion, and ankle flexion
2 RCT (n = 216) [50, 78]
 6 min WT [104] Task: walking for 6 minutes with comfortable pace
Measurement: distance [m, ft]
5 RCT (n = 359) [50, 57, 105,106,107]
Functional performance
 SPPB [108] Task: three subtests including standing balance (tandem, semi-tandem, and side-by-side stands), walking speed over an 8-ft walking course, and 5x STS
Measurement: score [0–12]
3 RCT (n = 313) [77, 90, 109] Small to medium c/r
 E-ADL Test [110, 111] Task: five items (pouring a drink, spreading butter on a sandwich and cutting the sandwich, open a small cupboard with a key, washing and drying hands, and tying a bow on a small wrapped present), which are rated according to correctly performed substeps (0–6 points)
Measurement: score [0–30]
2 RCT (n = 192) [112, 113]
  1. 4 m WT 4-m walk test, 5x STS Five Times Sit-to-Stand Test, 6 m WT 6-m walk test, 6 min WT 6-min walk test, 30s CST 30-s chair stand test, ACSID Assessment of Compensatory Sit-to-Stand Maneuvers in People With Dementia, BBS Berg Balance Scale, E-ADL Test Erlangen Test of Activities of Daily Living, FICSIT-4 Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques - subtest 4, FR Functional Reach Test, GMWT Groningen Meander Walking Test, n Number of analysed participants, POMA Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, RCT Randomised controlled trial/s, SPPB Short Physical Performance Battery, STS Sit-to-Stand, TUG Timed Up & Go Test.
  2. c calculated effect size, r effect size provided of randomised controlled trial