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Table 4 Results of pre- and post-measurements of physical and cognitive functions and cortical acitivty

From: A usability study of a multicomponent video game-based training for older adults

 Assessed byPre (T1)Post (T3)zpr
Physical functionsGait analysis
Speed [m/s]     
ST walking1.42 (1.36; 1.61)1.52 (1.36; 1.62)−0.684.5150.11
DT walking1.26 (1.17; 1.46)1.31 (1.22; 1.51)−2.012.045*0.33
DT costs in %6.4 (5.1; 17.6)8.4 (3.0; 18.2)−1.449.1560.24
Cadence [steps/min]
ST walking117.2 (114.6;120.7 (115.1; 126.1)−1.529.1340.25
DT walking125.7)113.2 (109.5; 120.4)−1.690.0960.27
DT costs in %111.7 (105.4; 116.9)
4.0 (1.8; 8.7)
3.5 (1.0; 9.0)−1.046.3120.17
Stride length [m]
ST walking1.48 (1.41; 1.56)1.47 (1.41; 1.56)−0.402.7090.07
DT walking1.36 (1.28; 1.50)1.36 (1.33; 1.49)−1.610.1130.26
DT costs in %3.8 (2.1; 10.3)4.2 (0.0; 9.2)−1.006.3320.16
Minimal toe clearance [cm]
ST walking2.3 (2.1; 3.1)2.9 (2.0; 3.4)−1.891.0600.31
DT walking2.2 (1.7; 2.7)2.7 (1.6; 3.2)−1.248.2250.20
DT costs in %3.9 (−4.9; 16.6)6.7 (−7.1; 19.3)−0.241.8290.04
Extended SPPB
Total score14 (13; 15)14 (13; 15)−0.266.7970.04
Balance score6 (6; 8)7 (5; 7)−0.134.9470.02
4 m-gait score4 (4; 4)4 (4; 4)0.0001.000< 0.01
4 m-gait time [s]3.3 (2.9; 3.7)3.2 (2.8; 3.6)−1.449.1530.24
5-chair rises score4 (3; 4)4 (3; 4)−0.816.7500.13
5-chair rises time [s]10.5 (8.3; 12.8)8.8 (7.3; 12.3)−2.853.003*0.46
Cognitive functionsTest of Attentional Performance
Working memory
RT [ms]741 (597; 843)677 (603; 840)−0.348.7420.06
Errors3 (0; 6)3 (1; 5)−0.416.6960.07
Omissions3 (2;4)3 (1; 4)−1.719.0880.28
Divided attention
RT auditory [ms]652 (584; 769)594 (580; 714)−2.495.011*0.40
RT visual [ms]893 (822; 948)881 (834; 945)−0.080.9450.01
Errors1 (0; 3)1 (0; 2)−0.641.5410.10
Omissions1 (0; 3)1 (1; 2)−1.388.1900.23
Selective attention
RT [ms]454 (397; 487)468 (396; 504)−0.543.6020.09
Errors1 (0; 2)0 (0; 2)−0.265.8480.04
Omissions0 (0; 0)0 (0; 0)−1.890.1250.31
Mental flexibility
RT [ms]932 (798; 1124)848 (786; 1018)−1.610.1130.26
Errors3 (1; 9)3 (1; 4)−1.163.2580.19
Cortical activityResting state EEG
Peak alpha frequency [Hz]9.3 (8.4; 9.9)9.3 (8.7; 10.0)−1.274.2320.26
Center of gravity [Hz]9.2 (8.5; 9.7)9.3 (8.4; 9.6)−1.013.3400.20
Alpha spectral power [μV2]20.5 (16.1; 35.7)27.0 (16.8; 46.9)−0.078.9700.02
  1. Data are median values (interquartile range). n = 19. *p < .05, p-values are exact sig. Two-tailed. Pre-post differences were evaluated using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. An effect size of r = 0.10 indicates a small effect, r = 0.30 a medium effect, and r ≥ 0.50 a large effect [86]. ST single-task, DT dual-task. DT costs are calculated as (ST – DT)/ST × 100. SPPB Short Physical Performance Battery. RT  reaction time
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