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Table 1 Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of participants by group

From: Effect of 9 weeks continuous vs. interval aerobic training on plasma BDNF levels, aerobic fitness, cognitive capacity and quality of life among seniors with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: a randomized controlled trial

CharacteristicCAT group, n = 14IAT group, n = 17Control group, n = 21
Age (years)74 (68–83)79 (75–82)79 (75–84)
Female, n111111
Male, n3610
Height (cm)167 (163–171)163 (160–170)170 (162–175)
Body weight(kg)65 (60–71)60 (52–67) a72 (60–77) a
Fat mass (%)30 (22–35)23 (19–27)26 (22–36)
BMI (kg/m2)23 (21–26)22 (20–24)23 (21–26)
BMI category
 Underweight, n120
 Normal weight, n91313
 Overweight, n416
 Obese, n012
Nursing home residing, n245
Home-living population, n121316
Education level (years)10 (7–10)7 (7–7)7 (7–10)
Alzheimer duration (years)2 (1–4)2 (1–5)6 (3–6)
Severity of dementia
 Mild; MMSE ≥215211
 Moderate; MMSE < 2191510
GDS, score0.1 (0.2–0.5)0.5 (0.6–1)0.6 (0.3–0.9)
ADL, score6 (5.5–6)6 (5.9–6)5.5 (4.6–6)
IADL, score4 (3–6)4 (3–6)3.5 (2–5)
Medicine
 Antihypertensive treatment, n81213
 Statins, n242
 Antidiabetic medication, n244
 Depression treatment, n035
 Anxiety treatment, n122
 Anti-psychotic, n101
Anti – Alzheimer’s treatment
 Cholinesterase inhibitors, n686
 NMDA receptor antagonist, n223
Comorbidities
 Charlson, score1 (1–1)2 (1–2)1 (1–2)
 Hypertension, n81213
 Diabetes, n244
 Hypercholesterolemia, n342
Inflammatory marker
 C-reactive protein (mg/L)0.6 (0.6–1)0.6 (0.6–1.3)1 (0.6–2)
BDNFp (pg/ml)194.9 (95.1–315)353.8 (109–452.7)254 (128.5–542.2)
METs4.2 (3.2–4.9)4.4 (3.9–4.9) a3.4 (2.9–4.2) a
MTP52 (42–60)50 (50–66)40 (35–70)
HR peak (Beats per minute)124 (116–141)120 (113–126)112 (106–120)
Measured HR peak / HR max (%)878581
RPE at HRpeak18 (17–18)17 (17–18)17 (17–18)
6MWT (meters)470 (402–494)430 (370–460)420 (360–450)
MMSE score18 (16–21)18 (17–19)21 (17–23)
RAVLT22 (13–26)21 (16–25)19 (18–24)
Forward Digit Span5 (3–6)4 (4–5.3)5 (4–7)
Backward Digit Span2 (2–3)3 (2–3)3 (2–4)
QoL-AD composite34 (32–36)34 (32–35)32 (29–34)
  1. Median and range are provided unless otherwise indicated. a: between group difference (p < 0.05)Abbreviations: n = Number; BMI = Body Mass Index; Underweight BMI < 18.5; Normal weight BMI = 18.5–24.9; Overweight BMI = 25–29; Obese BMI > 30; MMSE = Mini-Mental Status Exam (maximum score = 30); GDS = Geriatric disease scale: Score 0 to 4, score > 1 indicating high probability of depression; ADL = Activity of Daily Life, score 0 to 6 high score indicate more independence; IADL = Instrumental of Activity of Daily Life, score 0 to 8 high score indicate more independence; NMDA = N-methyl-D-aspartate; BDNFp: Plasma Brain derived neurotrophic factor; MET = Metabolic equivalent task; HR = Heart rate; RPE = Rating perceived exhaustion (Borg scale 6–20). 6MWT = 6 Minutes Walk Test; RAVLT: Rey Auditory Verbal learning Test, score 0 to 75 with higher score indicating better memory. QoL-AD: Quality of Life in Alzheimer’s Disease, total score 13 to 52 with higher score indicating better quality of life. Equation: HRmax (beats/min) = 220 - age