Skip to main content

Table 4 Results of individual studies

From: The effect of e-health interventions promoting physical activity in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis

No.Author/YearOutcomeMeasurementEffect Size – within group (Hedges G)
T1T2T3
1Pinto 2005 [46]PA time
EE
PA unit
7-Day PAR (min/week)
7-Day PAR (kcal/day)
Accelerometer (count)
0.58
0.60
0.43
0.71
0.72
0.36
 
2King 2007 [47]EE
PA time
EE
PA time
CHAMPS (kcal/kg/day)
CHAMPS (time/week)
7-Day PAR (kcal/kg/day)
7-Day PAR (min/week)
0.86
0.84
0.66
0.79
1.32
1.24
0.64
0.62
 
3Kolt 2007 [48]PA time
Walk time
AHSPAQ (min/week)
AHSPAQ (min/week)
0.18
0.40
0.24
0.19
0.35
0.21
4King 2008 [49]PA time
EE
CHAMPS (min/week)
CHAMPS (kcal/kg/week)
0.77
0.69
  
5Martinson 2008 [45]EECHAMPS (kcal/week)−0.03  
6Laubach 2009 [50]Step countPedometer (step/day)0.50  
7Martinson 2010 [51]EECHAMPS (kcal/week)0.070.150.17
8Kahlbaugh 2011 [34]PA unitWPAS (score)NA  
9Van Stralen 2011 [52]PA timeSQUASH (min/week)0.17  
10Peels 2013 [35]PA timeSQUASH (min/week)NA  
11Bickmore 2013 [53]Step countPedometer (step/day)0.01  
12Irvine 2013 [54]PA time
PA frequency
SDQ (min/week)
SDQ (count/week)
NA
0.84
NA
0.79
 
13King 2013 [55]Step count
Walk time
Pedometer (step/day)
CHAMPS (min/week)
NA
3.44
  
14Wijsman 2013 [36]PA timeAccelerometer (min/day)NA  
15Kim 2013 [56]Step count
PA unit
Pedometer (step/day)
LTEQ (score)
0.29
1.86
  
16Mendelson 2014 [57]Steps count
EE
Accelerometer (step/day)
Accelerometer (kcal/week)
−0.06
− 0.05
  
17Tabak 2014 [58]PA unit
PA unit
BPAQ (score)
Accelerometer (count/min)
−0.41
0.13
0.07
−0.16
 
18Tabak 2014 [59]Step countAccelerometer (step/day)0.090,14−0.05
19Thompson 2014 [42]PA unitAccelerometer (unit/day)−0.14  
20Vroege 2014 [60]PA timeAccelerometer (min/day)0.60  
21Frederix 2015 [41]PA time
Step count
IPAQ (min/week)
Accelerometer (step/day)
NA
11.19a
NA
27.6a
 
22Maddison 2015 [61]PA time
Walk time
IPAQ (min/week)
IPAQ (min/week)
0.17
0.13
  
23Martin 2015 [62]Step count
PA time
Accelerometer (steps/day)
Accelerometer (min/day)
0.39
0.71
  
24Mouton 2015 [71]PA timeIPAQ (min/week)0.33  
25Van de Weegen 2015 [63]PA timeAccelerometer (min/day)0.750.76 
26Broekhuizen 2016 [64]PA timeAccelerometer (min/day)0.59  
27King 2016 [37]PA time
Sed time
Walk time
Accelerometer (min/day)
Accelerometer (min/day)
Accelerometer (min/day)
   
28Muller 2016 [65]PA time
Sed time
IPAQ-S (min/week)
IPAQ-S (hr/day)
0.75
−0.12
0.85
−0.03
 
29Parker 2016 [33]PA timeEPAP (min/week)NA  
30Thakkar 2016 [39]PA time
Sed time
GPAQ(min/week)
GPAQ (min/week)
0.82
NA
  
31Thomsen 2016 [43]Sed timeActivPAL3 (hours/day)−0.15  
32Demeyer 2017 [66]Step count
PA time
Walk time
Accelerometer (step/day)
Accelerometer (min/day)
Accelerometer (min/day)
0.11
0.12
0.19
  
33Krebs 2017 [44]PA unitGLTEQ (MET units/week)−0.16  
34Lyons 2017 [67]Step count
Walk time
Sed time
Accelerometer (step/day)
Accelerometer (min/day)
Accelerometer (min/day)
0.41
0.58
−0.28
  
35Nahm 2017 [68]PA time
EE
YPAS (min/week)
YPAS (kcal/week)
0.21
0.21
  
36Alley 2018 [38]PA time
Step count
Accelerometer (min/day)
Accelerometer (step/day)
NA
NA
  
37Ellis 2019 [69]Steps count
PA time
Pedometer (step/day)
Pedometer (min/day)
0.01
0.13
  
38Rowley 2019 [40]Steps countPedometer (step/day)2.34a  
  1. aOutlining effect size, which was excluded from the meta-analysis
  2. PA Physical activity, EE Energy expenditure, Sed time Sedentary time, CHAMPS Community Healthy Activities Model Program questionnaire for older adults, SQUASH Short questionnaire to assess health enhancing physical activity, GLTEQ Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, YPAS Yale Physical Activity Survey, EPAP Electronic Physical Activity Participation Form, WPAS Weekly Physical Activity Scale, 7-Day = 7-Day Physical Activity Recall, AHSPAQ Auckland Heart Study Physical Activity Questionnaire, BPAQ Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire, GPAQ Global Physical Activity Questionnaire; GPPAQ General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire, SDQ Self-developed questionnaire
\