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Table 3 Data extraction of included studies

From: The effects of cognitive-motor training interventions on executive functions in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Training intervention Motor-component Cognitive component Cognitive measurement Progression Control group(s) Results
Ansai [25] GDT Warm up, muscle strengthening, balance, coordination, flexibility Working memory, inhibition MMSE (main scores and subscales)
MoCA (main scores and subscales), TUG-DT
In the complexity of the cognitive task Physical exercises without DT No differences between the groups regarding the cognitive outcomes; the MMSE and the visuo-spatial test of the MoCA increased; DTC decreased
Azaidian [26] GDT Standing and shifting center of gravity
Walking exercises to the front, backwards and sides
Working memory tasks
Verbal fluency tasks
Visual search tasks
Reaction time while (1) sitting, (2) standing, (3) walking, (4) selective (respond to direction of task) Stop Signal Task to measure inhibitory control
Working memory with Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale and Digital Symbol substitution test
Session 1–6 only motor training
Session 7–12 motor training with simple cognitive tasks
Session 13–24
Task complexity increased
CG 1: computer- based EF training
CG 2: no intervention
GDT training only improved the Wechsler forward in comparison to control groups
EF training improved SST correct answers and wrong answers; stride asymmetry while DT walking
Bacha [32] GDT-EX Xbox Kinect adventure game Fast multidirectional movements (steps, squats, jumps, coordinated movements of upper and lower limbs; trunk movements in three planes Reaction time; visuospatial attention, shifting of attention, decision making, immediate planning and execution MoCA Not reported conventional physiotherapy including balance, endurance and muscle strength, motor coordination; stretching Both groups increased within all performance measurements; the control group increased walking capacity
Bisson [44] Specific Virtual reality DT training Jiggle a virtual ball while standing Reaction time; visuospatial attention, immediate planning and execution Reaction Time test Not reported Biofeedback training with shifting the center of mass No significant group differences; both groups improved in the cognitive task
Chuang [45] GDT-EX - video dance Stepping forward, backwards and sidewards according to the music and presented steps on a screen (following an arrow) Reaction time, Attention and visuo-spatial orientation Flanker task Not reported CG 1: brisk walking
CG 2: inactive
Reaction times decreased in the intervention group as well as in the brisk walking group
Eggenberger 2015 [27] GDT-EX - video dance Stepping forward, backwards and sidewards according to the music and presented steps on a screen (following an arrow) Attention; reaction time and visuo-spatial orientation EF: Trail Making B
Long-term visual memory,
Long-term verbal memory (story recall)
Wechsler Memory scale revised
Progression adapted to participants abilities CG1: treadmill walking memory
CG2: walking
Both DT training groups improved the TMT-B; over a longer period of time the Dance group still improved whereas the memory group declined; same results for the executive control tasks; GDT-EX improved Working memory, attentional control; Go/no-go and set shifting
Eggenberger 2016 [33] GDT-EX - video dance Stepping forward, backwards and sidewards according to the music and presented steps on a screen (following an arrow) Attention; reaction time and visuo-spatial orientation EF: Trail Making B
Stroop task
Working memory task
MoCa
Processing speed
Progression adapted to participants abilities Balance training on different surfaces The intervention group improved the Trail making B, MoCA and the Stroop task
Falbo [15] GDT Physical- cognitive DT training; walking at different speeds; coordination training, balance performance; strengthening, stretching with music together with different cognitive tasks Inhibition, working memory and set-shifting Random number generation task to address EF; dual task cost while walking Rising difficulties (not further described) Same exercise program under single task condition The GDT group improved cognitive function
Hars [34] GDT with music Walking and handling of objects; reaction to the rhythm of the music Reaction time MMSE; Frontal assessment battery (FAB) Progression mentioned but not further described No intervention Intervention group increased MMSE
Heiden [46] SDT balance Body shifting to control virtual paddle Reaction time; visuospatial attention, immediate planning and execution Reaction time Chair based exercise with muscle strengthening Reaction time decreased in the intervention group  
Hiyamizu [35] GDT balance Strength training, balance and walking training using different undergrounds in combination with verbal fluency, arithmetic and visual search task Working memory
Visuospatial tasks
Trail making A and B
Stroop task
Not reported Same program but ST Only Stroop task performance improved in the GDT group
Kayama [28] GDT and SDT (exercises with specific Dual task Tai Chi) Aerobic training, progressive muscle strengthening, flexibility and balance; rhythmic stepping exercise with cognition; 5 min Dual task Tai Chi at the end Unclear; Dual task Tai Chi includes visuospatial tasks Verbal fluency test; Trail making B Only reported for strengthening Same training than intervention group without Dual task Tai Chi the intervention group improved the Delta TMT
Kitazewa [36] SDT net step exercises Steps within a net in a predefined way; every session learning a new combination; avoid to step on the net; than performing a line with steps in the net while singing a children song Working memory task Touch panel type dementia scale; Touch M system addresses visuospatial function; the TDAS is a modification of the Alzheimer’s Desease Asssessment Scale Increasing of steps and difficulty of the combination No intervention Thouch M score increased more in the intervention group;
Naming fingers as part of the TDAS improved in the intervention group
MacLean [37] SDT Walking with adjusting to the speed of music; ST walking, music walking; DT walking with music and counting backwards Working memory MMSE; TMT A-B; Wechsler memory scale revised
Digit span forward and backward; Story recall
DT walking
Not reported CG1: walking to music without adjusting
CG2: walking without music
MT training improved DT walking
Maillot [29] GDT-EX (Nintendo Wii) Body shifting and arm movements in front of the screen or on the Wii balance board Visuo spatial tasks
Processing speed tasks
TMT A-B, Stroop test
Letter set tests
Matrix reasoning test
Digit symbol substation test
Spatial span test
Directional heading test
Mental rotation test
Cancellation test
Number comparison test
Reaction time test
Plate tapping test
Not reported Non active the intervention group improved in all cognitive tasks except of the visuo spatial tasks
Morita [47] GDT Mental gymnastics with complicated finger movements; resistance training with DT, aerobic exercises with changing movement directions and DT; flexibility exercises Working memory; reaction time Modified minimental State (3MS)
TMT with a touch panel
Not reported Not active Intervention group maintained cognitive status whereas control group decreased
Nischiguschi [38] GDT Stretching, muscle strength, DT categories (working memory, reaction time, visuospatial tasks) Working memory, reaction time
Visuospatial tasks
MMSE; Wechsler memory scale revised
TMT A-B; N-Back
Reported for strength training but no further details No intervention Intervention group better results in WMS-R and TMT
Ordnung [30] GDT- EX X box™360 Kinect™ Whole-body movements to move an avatar on screen Attention, visuospatial function, reaction time
Shifting and decision making
Attention while being seated with Test of Attentional Performance; Simple reaction time/Alertness while being seated in front of a computer: response (finger pressing) to a visual stimuli on screen; Working memory (seated) with the n-back task) Not reported No intervention No significant improvement in tested cognitive functions, but improvements in fine motor skills of the left hand
Schaettin [39] GDT-EX lower extremity movements, stepping according to force platform Attention; reaction time and visuo-spatial orientation Attention, inhibition, working memory (Test for attentional performance), Cognitive Function (MMSE) Not reported (warm up 5 min; training 20 min, cool down 5 min) CG: traditional balance training, static and dynamic exercises, open eyes and closed eyes Four EF’s increased in the EXG group and one (shifting) in the CG
Schoene 2013 [31] SDT-EX Dance training Standing, stepping, weight shifting Attention; reaction time and visuo-spatial orientation Processing speed (Choice stepping reaction time; TMT A), shifting (TMT B), Dual-task costs (TUG-cog) Frist session supervised by an instructor, follow-up sessions individualized sessions in homes CG: no intervention Improvement in step reaction and movement times
Schoene 2015 [40] SDT-EX Dance training Standing, stepping, weight shifting Attention; reaction time and visuo-spatial orientation Inhibition (Stoop Stepping Test); Working Memory (letter-digit test, digit span backwards), Processing speed/ Attention (Test for attentional network test, TMTA, CRT+ CSRT; shifting (TMT B); Dual task costs (TUG-cog) Instruction at the beginning of the trial; conduction unsupervised in individuals’ homes CG: educational brochure in falls prevention IG improvement in processing speed and mental rotation, set- shifting increased with a higher dose of game playing; individuals with poorer baseline function in IG showed greater improvement
Theill [48] GDT Cardiovascular treadmill training; walking Verbal Working memory (selective) Attention, working memory, paired associates learning, processing speed, Dual task costs Not reported IG2: working memory training (single)
CG: no intervention
Improvement in executive control, no improvement in selective attention, more improvement in IG in paired associates learning
Wollesen 2017a [41] GDT Standing, balancing, muscle training Working memory, reaction time
Visuospatial tasks; task prioritization, task shifting
Dual tasks costs (walking under DT and ST conditions), Inhibition (seated Stroop Test/ walking while undertaking Stroop Test) Two phase intervention: Phase 1 (wk. 1–6); training of daily actions with likelihood of fall risks; Phase 2 (wk. 7–12) Task priorization IG2 single task strength and resistance
CG: no intervention
No significant improvement in IG1 in cognitive functions
Wollesen 2017b [42] GDT Walking, standing, balancing, Working memory, reaction time
Visuospatial tasks; task prioritization, task shifting
Dual-task costs (walking under ST and DT conditions), Inhibition (verbal Stroop task) Two phase intervention: Phase 1 (wk. 1–6); training of daily actions with likelihood of fall risks; Phase 2 (wk. 7–12) Task priorization and transfer into daily life IG2: ST conditions
CG: no intervention
Reduced number of errors in IG in Stroop test
You [43] SDT Walking, standing Memorizing Working memory (memory recall %) Not reported CG: no intervention Memory performance improved under DT conditions