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Table 1 The characteristics of participants included in the review

From: Effects of vibration therapy on muscle mass, muscle strength and physical function in older adults with sarcopenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study year Study design Country Subjects number
T (male, female)
C (male, female)
Mean age Diagnosing criteria of sarcopenia
Bellomo et al. 2013 [53] RCT American T:10(10,0)
C:10(10,0)
70.9 ± 5.2 SMI (kg/m2) by DXA < 2 SD of a young reference group
Wei et al. 2017 [54, 55] RCT China
(Hong Kong)
T1:20(7,13)
T2:20(7,13)
T3:20(5,15)
C:20(5,15)
T1:78 ± 4
T2:75 ± 6
T3:74 ± 5
C:76 ± 6
SMI (kg/m2) by BIA, cutoff 8.87 kg/m2 for male, cutoff 6.42 kg/m2 for female
Zhu et al. 2019 [57] RCT Mainland of China T:28(NR)
C:27(NR)
T:89.5 ± 4.4
C:87.5 ± 3
SMI (kg/m2) by DXA cutoff values 7.0 kg/m2 for male and 5.4 kg/m2 for female; grip strength cutoff 26 kg for male and 18 kg for females, walking speed cutoff value 0.8 m/s from AWGS
Pietrangelo et al. 2009 [52] CCT Italy T:9(4,5) M:75.3 ± 6.9
F:71.0 ± 5.7
SMI (kg/m2) by DXA < 2 SD of a young reference group
Chang et al. 2018 [56] CCT China (Taiwan) 17(12,5) 82.12 ± 8.19 SMI (kg/kg) by body composition analyzer (model IOI353) cutoff for males 10.75 kg/m2, and females 6.75 kg/m2 grip strength cutoff 26 kg for male and 18 kg for females, walking speed cutoff value 0.8 m/s Standards
Miller et al. 2018 [51] CCT American 15(0/15) 58.2 ± 6.4 ALM/BMI cutoff values 0.789 for male and 0.512 for female
  1. SMI (kg/m2): muscle mass (kg)/height (m)2, SMI (kg/kg): muscle mass (kg)/weight(kg), ALM/BMI: ALM (appendicular lean mass)/BMI (body mass index), DXA Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, BIA Bioimpedance analysis, AWGS Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia