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Table 2 The characteristics of training protocol and outcomes included in the review

From: Effects of vibration therapy on muscle mass, muscle strength and physical function in older adults with sarcopenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study year Type of intervention (T/C) Vibration machine Posture of WBV or location of LV Vibration Frequency (Hz) Time of duration Frequency of sessions ×duration of program Outcome measures and (follow up period in weeks)
Muscle mass Muscle strength Physical performance
Bellomo et al. 2013 [53] T:LV
C:None
VISS device (Vissman, Rome, Italy) Vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and rectus femoris muscles 300 15 min 1/week from week 1 to 8
3/week from week 9 to 12
NM Lower-limb strength (0,12) Balance test: Sway area (0,12)
Wei et al. 2017 [54, 55] T1: WBV
T2: WBV
T3: WBV
C: None
WBV machine (Fit vibe excel, Gymna Uniphy NV, Bilzen, Belgium) Stood barefoot with their knee joint flexed at 60° on the platform of the WBV machine with hands holding onto the rail in front T1:20
T2:40
T3:60
12 min
6 min
4 min
3/week from 1 to 12 CSA
(0,6,12,18,24)
Lower-limb strength (0,6,12,18,24) Meter walking test
Timed up and-go test
Five-repetition sit-to-stand test
(0,6,12,18,24)
Study year Type of intervention (T/C) Vibration machine Posture of WBV or location of LV Vibration Frequency (Hz) Time of duration Frequency of sessions ×duration of program Outcome measures and (follow up period in weeks)
Muscle mass Muscle strength Physical performance
Zhu et al. 2019 [57] T: WBV
C: None
WBV machine Wellengang Excellence reciprocating vibration platform (SVG, Wellengang, Germany) Set on the chair next to the WBV machine and put the foot on the fixed position of the WBV machine with hands holding onto the rail in front 12 for 1 to 2 weeks
14 for 3 to 6 weeks
16 for 7 to 8 weeks
20 min 5/week from 1 to 8 DXA (0,8) Handgrip strength Lower-limb strength
(0,8)
The 6-m gait speed test Timed-up-and-go test
Five-times-sit-to-stand test
Balance test
(0,8)
Pietrangelo et al. 2009 [52] LV VISS device (Vissman, Rome, Italy) Intermedius femoris, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and vastus lateralis muscles. 300 15 min 1/week from week 1 to 8
3/week from week 9 to 12
CSA (0,4,8,12) Lower-limb strength (0,4,8,12,28) NM
Study year Type of intervention
(T/C)
Vibration machine Posture of WBV or location of LV Vibration Frequency (Hz) Time of duration Frequency of sessions ×duration of program Outcome measures and (follow up period in weeks)
Muscle mass Muscle strength Physical performance
Chang et al. 2018 [56] WBV Whole-body vibration (i-vib6050 model) Stood on a vibration and stimulation generating platform 12 10 min 3/week from week 1 to week 12 SMI (kg/kg)
(1, 12)
Grip strength
(1, 12)
Eight-foot up and go test
Five repeated sit-to-stand tests
Standing on one-foot text
Shoulder-arm flexibility text
(1, 12)
Miller et al. 2018 [51] WBV Whole-body vibration (Power Plate platform (Northbrook, Illinois) Stood bare foot on the platform, legs shoulder width apart, knees flexed to a 30° angle, and their arms placed equidistant on the device handles. 30 T1:6 min
T2:1min
T1:1 time
T2:6 time
NM Grip strength (acute) Timed Up and Go Test
Berg Balance Scale
Sit and Reach
(acute)
  1. WBV whole-body vibration, LV local vibration, CSA cross-sectional area, SMI (kg/kg): muscle mass (kg)/weight(kg), DXA Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, NM not measured