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Table 1 The frequency of occurrence of normal and below-normal bone mineral status in men and women (%) depending on the sport and percentage differences (χ2 test, level of significance p)

From: Bone mineral density in elite masters athletes: the effect of body composition and long-term exercise

Bone Mineral Density Reference ranges Men (n = 137) χ2
(p) Φ
Women (n = 107) χ2
(p) Φ
EA SPA TA EA SPA TA
Distal R + U Normal (T-score = > −0.99) 69.4 77.8 100 9.2 (0.057) 0.3 50.0 57.5 89.5 9.9 (0.043) 0.3
Osteopenic (T-score − 1 to −2.49) 29.0 22.2 47.9 42.5 10.5
Osteoporosis (T-score < = − 2.50) 1.6 2.1
Proximal R + U Normal (T-score= > −0.99) 46.8 44.4 61.9 3.8 (0.431) 0.2 12.5 40.0 63.2 19.7 (< 0.001) 0.4
Osteopenic (T-score − 1 to −2.49) 40.3 44.4 38.1 37.5 22.5 26.3
Osteoporosis (T-score < = − 2.50) 12.9 11.2 50.0 37.5 10.5
Proximal R Normal (T-score = > −0.99) 62.9 68.5 85.7 4.1 (0.392) 0.2 33.3 47.5 68.4 9.0 (0.060) 0.3
Osteopenic (T-score − 1 to −2.49) 30.6 25.9 14.3 22.9 25.0 21.1
Osteoporosis (T-score < = − 2.50) 6.5 5.6 43.8 27.5 10.5
  1. Notes: EA Endurance athletes, SPA Speed-power athletes, TA Throwing athletes