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Table 2 General characteristics of the analyzed variables in male Masters Athletes (n = 137)

From: Bone mineral density in elite masters athletes: the effect of body composition and long-term exercise

  Endurance athletes (n = 62) Speed-power athletes (n = 54) Throwing athletes (n = 21) Significant difference F (p) η2
Mean ± SD
Age [years] 56.1 ± 11.8 57.9 ± 12.2 57.5 ± 12.0 0.4 (0.690) 0.01
Body mass [kg] 70.5 ± 8.0 75.3 ± 8.3 99.2 ± 15.9 1v2v3 69.5 (< 0.001) 0.51
Height [cm] 175.7 ± 5.6 177.0 ± 8.1 183.0 ± 7.3 1,2v3 8.8 (< 0.001) 0.12
Forearm length [cm] 26.4 ± 1.3 26.6 ± 1.5 27.6 ± 1.8 1,2v3 5.6 (0.005) 0.08
Wrist width [cm] 6.2 ± 0.98 6.6 ± 0.72 7.3 ± 0.89 1v2v3 12.3 (< 0.001) 0.15
BMD dis R + U [g/cm2] 0.420 ± 0.067 0.446 ± 0.076 0.488 ± 0.056 1v2 7.7 (< 0.001) 0.10
BMD prox R + U [g/cm2] 0.886 ± 0.087 0.888 ± 0.089 0.916 ± 0.047 1.1 (0.329) 0.02
BMD prox R [g/cm2] 0.902 ± 0.088 0.910 ± 0.093 0.928 ± 0.059 0.7 (0.487) 0.01
BMC dis R + U [g] 2.019 ± 0.357 2.085 ± 0.404 2.389 ± 0.256 1,2v3 8.2 (< 0.001) 0.11
BMC prox R + U [g] 2.631 ± 0.306 2.670 ± 0.343 2.958 ± 0.268 1,2v3 8.7 (< 0.001) 0.11
BMC prox R [g] 1.382 ± 0.151 1.384 ± 0.253 1.580 ± 0.162 1,2v3 8.7 (< 0.001) 0.11
T-score dis R + U −0.442 ± 0.992 − 0.129 ± 1.044 0.512 ± 0.818 1,2v3 7.4 (0.001) 0.10
T-score prox R + U −1.189 ± 0.978 −1.130 ± 0.967 −0.778 ± 0.529 1.6 (0.205) 0.02
T-score prox R −0.766 ± 1.014 −0.690 ± 1.045 −0.459 ± 0.673 0.8 (0.467) 0.01
% age matched dis R + U 93.2 ± 15.2 97.9 ± 16.0 108.0 ± 12.7 1,2v3 7.5 (0.001) 0.10
% age matched prox R + U 89.4 ± 8.8 89.9 ± 8.5 92.5 ± 4.7 1.1 (0.326) 0.02
% age matched prox R 93.1 ± 9.1 94.0 ± 9.3 95.7 ± 5.8 0.7 (0.498) 0.01
%BF 16.6 ± 3.9 16.7 ± 5.5 18.1 ± 4.2 0.9 (0.425) 0.01
BFM [kg] 11.7 ± 3.4 12.7 ± 4.4 18.5 ± 6.6 1,2v3 18.8 (< 0.001) 0.22
LBM [kg] 59.1 ± 6.4 63.1 ± 8.7 81.8 ± 11.8 1v2v3 59.3 (< 0.001) 0.47
TBW [kg] 42.5 ± 4.6 45.5 ± 6.3 58.9 ± 8.5 1v2v3 59.4 (< 0.001) 0.47
SLM [kg] 54.9 ± 6.0 58.7 ± 8.2 76.0 ± 10.9 1v2v3 58.1 (< 0.001) 0.46
ICW 25.8 ± 3.0 27.6 ± 3.9 35.5 ± 5.3 1v2v3 52.2 (< 0.001) 0.44
ECW 16.7 ± 1.8 17.8 ± 2.4 23.4 ± 3.3 1v2v3 67.1 (< 0.001) 0.50
  1. Notes: significant differences between groups (1 – endurance athletes; 2 – speed-power athletes, 3 – throwing athletes)
  2. BMD Bone mineral density, BMC Bone mass, dis- distal part of forearm, prox proximal part of forearm, BF Body fat, BFM Body fat mass, LBM Lean body mass, TBW Total body water, SLM Soft lean mass, ICW Intercellular water, ECW Extracellular water