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Table 3 General characteristics of the analyzed variables in female Masters Athletes (n = 107)

From: Bone mineral density in elite masters athletes: the effect of body composition and long-term exercise

  Endurance athletes (n = 48) Speed-power athletes (n = 40) Throws athletes (n = 19) Significant difference F (p) η2
Mean ± SD
Age [years] 57.7 ± 11.1 55.2 ± 12.2 56.8 ± 9.8 0.6 (0.562) 0.01
Body mass [kg] 57.0 ± 7.3 60.6 ± 5.7 83.8 ± 12.2 1,2v3 82.5 (< 0.001) 0.61
Height [cm] 162.6 ± 6.8 166.2 ± 7.7 169.9 ± 5.4 1v3 8.1 (< 0.001) 0.13
Forearm length [cm] 24.4 ± 1.1 24.9 ± 1.3 25.1 ± 1.2 3.2 (0.046) 0.06
Wrist width [cm] 4.7 ± 0.3 4.9 ± 0.3 5.3 ± 0.6 1v2v3 20.8 (< 0.001) 0.28
BMD dis R + U [g/cm2] 0.293 ± 0.054 0.322 ± 0.075 0.350 ± 0.053 1v3 6.1 (0.003) 0.10
BMD prox R + U [g/cm2] 0.649 ± 0.101 0.713 ± 0.118 0.783 ± 0.094 1v2,3 11.5 (< 0.001) 0.18
BMD prox R [g/cm2] 0.677 ± 0.117 0.736 ± 0.118 0.802 ± 0.101 1v3 8.6 (< 0.001) 0.14
BMC dis R + U [g] 1.222 ± 0.265 1.323 ± 0.316 1.544 ± 0.245 1,2v3 8.9 (< 0.001) 0.15
BMC prox R + U [g] 1.718 ± 0.259 1.867 ± 0.298 2.192 ± 0.381 1,2v3 17.2 (< 0.001) 0.25
BMC prox R [g] 0.908 ± 0.140 0.995 ± 0.159 1.166 ± 0.202 1v2v3 17.8 (< 0.001) 0.25
T-score dis R + U −0.902 ± 0.834 −0.547 ± 1.179 −0.031 ± 0.835 1v3 5.6 (0.005) 0.10
T-score prox R + U −2.660 ± 1.605 −1.691 ± 1.859 −0.555 ± 1.494 1v2,3 11.2 (< 0.001) 0.18
T-score prox R − 2.204 ± 1.840 −1.308 ± 1.863 − 0.223 ± 1.608 1v3 8.6 (< 0.001) 0.14
% age matched dis R + U 95.1 ± 15.3 100.6 ± 21.9 111.4 ± 17.8 1v3 5.3 (0.006) 0.09
% age matched prox R + U 87.7 ± 10.3 93.6 ± 13.7 103.8 ± 12.0 1,2v3 12.4 (< 0.001) 0.19
% age matched prox R 92.5 ± 11.6 98.0 ± 14.2 107.7 ± 12.1 1,2v3 9.8 (< 0.001) 0.16
%BF 24.8 ± 5.2 25.0 ± 4.1 30.9 ± 6.2 1,2v3 11.3 (< 0.001) 0.18
BFM [kg] 14.4 ± 4.7 15.4 ± 3.2 25.7 ± 7.5 1,2v3 40.1 (< 0.001) 0.43
LBM [kg] 42.4 ± 4.4 45.8 ± 4.6 56.4 ± 7.5 1v2v3 50.3 (< 0.001) 0.49
TBW [kg] 30.5 ± 3.2 33.0 ± 3.3 56.4 ± 7.5 1v2v3 50.5 (< 0.001) 0.49
SLM [kg] 39.1 ± 4.0 41.9 ± 4.8 51.7 ± 6.9 1v2v3 44.9 (< 0.001) 0.46
ICW 18.5 ± 2.0 20.0 ± 1.9 24.4 ± 3.2 1v2v3 50.0 (< 0.001) 0.49
ECW 12.0 ± 1.3 13.1 ± 1.5 16.1 ± 2.2 1v2v3 47.1 (< 0.001) 0.47
  1. Notes: significant differences between groups (1 – endurance athletes; 2 – speed-power athletes, 3 – throwing athletes)
  2. BMD Bone mineral density, BMC Bone mass, dis- distal part of forearm, prox proximal part of forearm, BF Body fat, BFM Body fat mass, LBM Lean body mass, TBW Total body water, SLM Soft lean mass, ICW Intercellular water, ECW Extracellular water