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Table 1 Basic characteristics of included case-control studies

From: Effects of low back pain on balance performance in elderly people: a systematic review and meta-analysis

References Design Basic data of Participant Balance task Outcome measure
(balance performance)
LBP Health Source of participants
Age (mean ± SD) N Age (mean ± SD) N
Yi-Liang(2015) [21] case-control 60.5(4.1) 13 59.7 (3.0) 13 local communities and affiliated hospital Single-leg standing TUG
STS
Ito(2018) [22] case-control 75.5 (5.1) 28 73.7 (5.7) 46 Department of Physical Medicine
and Rehabitation
eyes closed
Muscle Vibration
RPW
Brumagne (2004) [23] case-control 63 10 63 10 Department of Physical Medicine
and Rehabilitation
1. control (no vibration);
2. bilateral vibration of thetriceps surae tendons;
3. bilateral vibration of the Tibialis anterior tendons;
4. bilateral vibration of the Paraspinal muscle bellies
COP
Ito(2017) [24] case-control 76.7 (4.2) 47 73.8 (4.9) 64 NationalCenter for Geriatric and
Gerontology
Muscle Vibration RPW
Lee(2016) [25] case-control 64.5 (5.7) 30 66.2 (4.5) 26 University Hospital,
local communities, and around the campus
Postural perturbation COP
Iversen(2009) [26] case-control 75.5 (5.1) 28 73.7 (5.7) 46 tertiary care spine center static standing TUG
COP
Kendall(2018) [27] case-control 82.4 (4.6) 24 81.1 (4.3) 19 a preventative
home visit
program
static standing COP
Sung(2017) [28] case-control 65.1 (13.5) 51 63.6 (15) 59 community walk gait parameters
Lihavainen(2010) [29] case-control 80.6 (4.8) 291 80.1 (4.4) 314 all the inhabitants of thecity in Finland static standing
eyes open
eyes close
Feet together
COP
Champagne(2012) [30] case-control 68.9 (6.6) 15 69.4 (6.4) 15 local community TUG
One-leg stance
Walking speed
Hicks(2018) [31] case-control 69.3 (6.7) 54 71.1 (6.8) 54 community walk gait parameters
Silva(2016) [32] case-control 70.0(8) 10 73.0 (7) 10 local community one-leg stance COP
Kato(2019) [33] case-control 77.4 (4.2) 21 78.1 (4.4) 17 outpatient of hospital one-leg standing standing time
  1. N number of participants in the study, COP centre of pressure, RPW relative proprioceptive weighting, STS sit-to-stand test, TUG timed up and go test. LBP low back pain participants, Health healthy participants without low back pain