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Table 1 Acute resistance exercise with BFR in older adults

From: Effects of blood flow restriction (BFR) with resistance exercise on musculoskeletal health in older adults: a narrative review

Article

Subject characteristics

Exercise protocol

BFR method

Side effects

Research outcomes

[92]

14♀, (45 ± 9.9 yo)

Hypertensive & sedentary

30% 1RM, bilateral knee extension

3 × 15 reps

45 sec rest between sets

80% of arterial pressure occlusion

Not mentioned

SBP up to 60 min post-exercise 13.2%

HR

DBP

[28]

7♂, (70 ± 2 yo)

Healthy, nonclinical

Physically active but no structured training

20% 1RM, bilateral knee extension

30, 15,15, 15 reps

30 sec rest between sets

200 mmHg

Reported discomfort comparable to high-intensity resistance exercise.

No side effects reported up to 1-week post-exercise

Leg circumference 52%

Blood markers

Blood lactate 175% 15 min post-exercise, back to baseline 60 min post-exercise.

Cortisol ~ 1100% post-exercise, back to baseline 3 hr. post-exercise

GH ~ 400% 15 min post-exercise, back to baseline 45 min post-exercise

IL-6

IGF-I

D-dimer

Blood glucose

Intramuscular

Muscle protein synthesis ~ 50%

mTOR Ser2448 ~ 30% 3 hr. post-exercise

S6K1 Thr389 ~ 300% 3 hr. post-exercise

S6 Ser235/235 ~ 1000% & 1800% , 1 & 3 hr. post-exercise

S6 Ser 240/244 ~ 500% 3 hr. post-exercise

MnK1 Thr197/202 ~ 200% 1 hr. post-exercise

AKT Thr308 ~ 72% 3 hr. post-exercise

4E-BP1, eEF2, eIF2Bε

REDD1 gene expression 41% 3 hr. post-exercise

REDD2 gene expression 42% 3 hr. post-exercise

REDD1 protein

AMPKα Thr172

HSP70

FAK Tyr576/577

FOXO3a Ser253

[38]

7♂, (71.0 ± 6.5 yo)

Healthy, nonclinical

Performs regular aerobic exercise, but not resistance exercise

20% 1RM, unilateral knee extension

5 sets (30, 9, 6, 5, 4 reps)

30 sec rest between sets

~ 110 mmHg

Not mentioned

GH ~ 220% 30 min post-exercise

Vascular endothelial growth factor ~ 250% up to 2 hour post-exercise

IL-6 ~ 15% 1- & 2-hour post-exercise

Cortisol

IGF-1

[42]

18♀, (67.0 ± 1.7 yo)

Hypertensive & sedentary

20% 1RM, bilateral knee extension

3 × 10 reps

1 min rest between sets

80% of arterial pressure occlusion

Not mentioned

During exercise

SBP ~ 60.0%

DBP ~ 62.6%

HR ~ 22.1%

SVR ~ 66.5%

SV

CO

Post-exercise

SBP ~ 2.2%

DBP ~ 2.4%

HR ~ 8.1%

SVR

SV ~ 30.7%

CO ~ 27.9%

Lactate ~ 28.6%

[101]

12♀, (57 ± 7 yo)

Hypertensive & sedentary

20% 1RM, leg press

3 × 15 reps

30 sec rest between sets

100% of arterial pressure occlusion

Not mentioned

During exercise

SBP ~ 62.2%

DBP ~ 69.6%

HR ~ 58.3%

CO ~ 20%

SVR only in 2nd & 3rd set ~ 42.0%

During rest intervals

SBP ~ 35.9%

DBP ~ 15.1%

HR ~ 14.5%

CO ~ 17.8%

SVR ~ 54.6%

[43]

13♂, (70 ± 5 yo)

Healthy, nonclinical & sedentary

20% 1RM, leg press

30, 15, 15, 15 reps

1 min rest between sets

2 sec concentric,

2 sec eccentric

60% of arterial pressure occlusion

Not mentioned

Leg press trial

MAP & SBP

Lactate *BFR and non-BFR trial performed on same day with 20–40 min rest between exercises.

  1. Indicates significantly increased
  2. Indicates significantly decreased
  3. Indicates no significant difference
  4. 4E-BP1: 4E binding protein 1; AKT: protein kinase B; AMPKα: 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase; eEF2: Eukaryotic elongation factor 2; eIF2Bε: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E; ERK/MAPK: extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase; FAK: Focal adhesion kinase; FOXO3a: Forkhead box transcription factors; HSP70: Heat stress protein 70; IGF-I: insulin-like growth factor 1; IRS: insulin receptor substrate; MnK1: mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinase 1; mTORC1/2: mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1/2; PI3K: phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase; PIP3: phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate; REDD1: regulated in development and DNA damage responses 1; Rheb: ras-homolog enriched in brain; rpS6: ribosomal protein S6 (S6); S6K1; ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1 (p70S6 kinase 1); TSC: tuberous sclerosis complex; CO: Cardiac output; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; GH: growth hormone; HR: heart rate; IL-6: interleukin-6; MAP: mean arterial pressure SBP: systolic blood pressure; SV: stroke volume; SVR: systemic vascular resistance