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Table 1 Acute resistance exercise with BFR in older adults

From: Effects of blood flow restriction (BFR) with resistance exercise on musculoskeletal health in older adults: a narrative review

Article Subject characteristics Exercise protocol BFR method Side effects Research outcomes
[92] 14♀, (45 ± 9.9 yo)
Hypertensive & sedentary
30% 1RM, bilateral knee extension
3 × 15 reps
45 sec rest between sets
80% of arterial pressure occlusion Not mentioned SBP up to 60 min post-exercise 13.2%
HR
DBP
[28] 7♂, (70 ± 2 yo)
Healthy, nonclinical
Physically active but no structured training
20% 1RM, bilateral knee extension
30, 15,15, 15 reps
30 sec rest between sets
200 mmHg Reported discomfort comparable to high-intensity resistance exercise.
No side effects reported up to 1-week post-exercise
Leg circumference 52%
Blood markers
Blood lactate 175% 15 min post-exercise, back to baseline 60 min post-exercise.
Cortisol ~ 1100% post-exercise, back to baseline 3 hr. post-exercise
GH ~ 400% 15 min post-exercise, back to baseline 45 min post-exercise
IL-6
IGF-I
D-dimer
Blood glucose
Intramuscular
Muscle protein synthesis ~ 50%
mTOR Ser2448 ~ 30% 3 hr. post-exercise
S6K1 Thr389 ~ 300% 3 hr. post-exercise
S6 Ser235/235 ~ 1000% & 1800% , 1 & 3 hr. post-exercise
S6 Ser 240/244 ~ 500% 3 hr. post-exercise
MnK1 Thr197/202 ~ 200% 1 hr. post-exercise
AKT Thr308 ~ 72% 3 hr. post-exercise
4E-BP1, eEF2, eIF2Bε
REDD1 gene expression 41% 3 hr. post-exercise
REDD2 gene expression 42% 3 hr. post-exercise
REDD1 protein
AMPKα Thr172
HSP70
FAK Tyr576/577
FOXO3a Ser253
[38] 7♂, (71.0 ± 6.5 yo)
Healthy, nonclinical
Performs regular aerobic exercise, but not resistance exercise
20% 1RM, unilateral knee extension
5 sets (30, 9, 6, 5, 4 reps)
30 sec rest between sets
~ 110 mmHg Not mentioned GH ~ 220% 30 min post-exercise
Vascular endothelial growth factor ~ 250% up to 2 hour post-exercise
IL-6 ~ 15% 1- & 2-hour post-exercise
Cortisol
IGF-1
[42] 18♀, (67.0 ± 1.7 yo)
Hypertensive & sedentary
20% 1RM, bilateral knee extension
3 × 10 reps
1 min rest between sets
80% of arterial pressure occlusion Not mentioned During exercise
SBP ~ 60.0%
DBP ~ 62.6%
HR ~ 22.1%
SVR ~ 66.5%
SV
CO
Post-exercise
SBP ~ 2.2%
DBP ~ 2.4%
HR ~ 8.1%
SVR
SV ~ 30.7%
CO ~ 27.9%
Lactate ~ 28.6%
[101] 12♀, (57 ± 7 yo)
Hypertensive & sedentary
20% 1RM, leg press
3 × 15 reps
30 sec rest between sets
100% of arterial pressure occlusion Not mentioned During exercise
SBP ~ 62.2%
DBP ~ 69.6%
HR ~ 58.3%
CO ~ 20%
SVR only in 2nd & 3rd set ~ 42.0%
During rest intervals
SBP ~ 35.9%
DBP ~ 15.1%
HR ~ 14.5%
CO ~ 17.8%
SVR ~ 54.6%
[43] 13♂, (70 ± 5 yo)
Healthy, nonclinical & sedentary
20% 1RM, leg press
30, 15, 15, 15 reps
1 min rest between sets
2 sec concentric,
2 sec eccentric
60% of arterial pressure occlusion Not mentioned Leg press trial
MAP & SBP
Lactate *BFR and non-BFR trial performed on same day with 20–40 min rest between exercises.
  1. Indicates significantly increased
  2. Indicates significantly decreased
  3. Indicates no significant difference
  4. 4E-BP1: 4E binding protein 1; AKT: protein kinase B; AMPKα: 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase; eEF2: Eukaryotic elongation factor 2; eIF2Bε: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E; ERK/MAPK: extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase; FAK: Focal adhesion kinase; FOXO3a: Forkhead box transcription factors; HSP70: Heat stress protein 70; IGF-I: insulin-like growth factor 1; IRS: insulin receptor substrate; MnK1: mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinase 1; mTORC1/2: mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1/2; PI3K: phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase; PIP3: phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate; REDD1: regulated in development and DNA damage responses 1; Rheb: ras-homolog enriched in brain; rpS6: ribosomal protein S6 (S6); S6K1; ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1 (p70S6 kinase 1); TSC: tuberous sclerosis complex; CO: Cardiac output; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; GH: growth hormone; HR: heart rate; IL-6: interleukin-6; MAP: mean arterial pressure SBP: systolic blood pressure; SV: stroke volume; SVR: systemic vascular resistance