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Table 2 Characteristics of the studies included and TESTEX and STARDHRV score

From: Effects of different exercise interventions on heart rate variability and cardiovascular health factors in older adults: a systematic review

Author, year Participants (sample size, age [year], gender) HRV protocol (method, respiration, position, sampling frequency) Analysis length Intervention (type, duration, sessions/week) Control group TESTEX STARDHRV
Endurance training
 Albinet et al., 2016 [56] 32 Polar RS800 chest belt 256 NN intervals Endurance (aquaerobics & swimming) yes (stretching) 10.5 19.5
Age: 67 ± 5 n.r.   21 weeks
26 women, 6 men sitting
n.r.
  2 sessions
 Albinet et al., 2010 [5] 24 Polar RS800 chest belt 256 NN intervals Endurance (walking, circuit-training, stepping & running) yes (stretching) 11 21
Age: 70.7 ± 4.2 n.r.   12 weeks
13 women, 9 men sitting
n.r.
  3 sessions
 Okazaki et al., 2005 [57] 10 ECG 6 min in each breathing mode Endurance (walking, running, swimming & cycling) no 4.5 20.5
Age: 71.3 ± 3.0 spontaneous & paced (12 breaths/min)   12 months
  4 women, 6 men supine
1.000 Hz
  3 sessions    
 Wanderley et al., 2013 [22]e 50 PolarNV vantage chest belt 5 min Endurance (walking, stepping, dancing) yes 10 18.5
Age: 68.6 ± 5.7 spontaneous   8 months
39 women, 11 men supine
n.r.
  3 sessions
Resistance training
 Gerage et al., 2013 [58] 29 Polar s810i chest belt 5 min Resistance yes (stretching) 12.5 22.5
Age: 65.9 ± 4.6 spontaneous   12 weeks
100% women Sitting
n.r.
  3 session
 Kanegusuku et al., 2015 [18] 25 ECG 5 min High-intensity progressive resistance training yes 9.5 23
Age: 63.5 n.r.   16 weeks
18 women, 7 men sitting
500 Hz
  2 sessions
 Wanderley et al., 2013 [22] 50 PolarNV vantage chest belt 5 min Whole-body resistance yes 10 18.5
Age: 68.6 ± 5.7 spontaneous   8 months
39 women, 11 men supine
n.r.
  3 sessions
Coordinative training
 Audette et al., 2006 [21] 19 ECG 5 min Coordinative (Tai Chi) yes 8.5 18.5
Age: 72.3 spontaneous   12 weeks
100% women n.r.
n.r.
  3 sessions
 Varas-Diaz et al., 2020 [20] 20 Polar RS800CX chest belt 5 min Coordinative (dancing) yes 10.5 19.5
Age: 68.6 ± 5.7 n.r.   6 weeks
7 women, 13 men supine
1.000 Hz
  5 (week 1–2), 3 (week 3–4) & 2 sessions (week 5–6)
Multimodal training
 Eggenberger et al., 2020 [59] 70 Polar RS800CX chest belt 5 min Multimodal (DG: dancing, resistance & balance; MG: treadmill walking, memory training, resistance & balance; TG: treadmill walking, resistance & balance) no 7 21
Age: 78.8 n.r.   26 weeks
45 women, 25 men sitting
1.000 Hz
  2 sessions
 McKune et al., 2017 [46] 58 Suunto t6 chest belt 300 NN intervals Multimodal (endurance, resistance & balance) no 7 18.5
Age: 71.8 n.r.   12 weeks
44 women, 14 men sitting
n.r.
  2 or 3 sessions
 Rezende Barbosa et al., 2019 [60] 39 Polar RS 800 chest belt 1.000 NN intervals Multimodal (resistance, coordination, balance, agility & walking) yes 9.5 20
Age: 59.2 n.r.   18 weeks
100% women supine
n.r.
  3 sessions
 Rossi et al., 2013 [61] 17 Polar s810i chest belt 256 NN intervals Multimodal (endurance & resistance) yes 4.5 18
Age: 60.8 ± 6.2 spontaneous   16 weeks
100% women supine
n.r.
  3 sessions
 Verheyden et al., 2006 [62] 29 ECG 10 min Multimodal (endurance & resistance) yes 10.5 19,5
Age: 63.3 spontaneous   12 months
100% men standing & supine
1.000 Hz
  2–3 sessions
  1. BF, body fat; BM, body mass; BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; BR, baroreflex sensitivity; CO, cardiac output; DG, dancing group; ECG, electrocardiography; HF (nu), power in high frequency range (in normalized units); HF%, relative power in high frequency range; LF (nu), power in low frequency range (in normalized units); LF%, relative power in low frequency range; ln, natural logarithm; MG, memory training group; mRR, mean RR interval; n.r., not reported; pNN50, number of pairs of adjacent NN intervals differing by more than 50 ms in the entire recording divided by the total number of all NN intervals; RHR, resting heart rate; RMSSD, square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals; SD1, standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat variability, extracted from Poincaré Plot; SD2, standard deviation of the long-term variability, extracted from Poincaré Plot; SDNN, standard deviation of NN intervals; SV, stroke volume; TG, treadmill walking group; TP, total power; TPR, total peripheral resistance; TV, total variance; VO2 max, maximum oxygen consumption; VO2 peak, peak oxygen consumption; 6-MWT, six minute walking test