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Table 3 Outcome of selected heart rate related variables and secondary health factors

From: Effects of different exercise interventions on heart rate variability and cardiovascular health factors in older adults: a systematic review

Outcome heart rate related variables
Author, year Analysis RHR mRR (ln) SDNN (ln) RMSSD (ln) HF (nu) (ln) LF (nu) LF/HF (ln) TP SD1 SD2
Endurance training
 Albinet et al., 2016 [56] Group x session interaction        
  Within        
 Albinet et al., 2010 [5] Group x session interaction       
 Okazaki et al., 2005 [57] Within       
 Wanderley et al., 2013 [22] Within        
Resistance training
 Gerage et al., 2013 [58] Within  
 Kanegusuku et al., 2015 [18] Within       
 Wanderley et al., 2013 [22] Within        
Coordinative training
 Audette et al., 2006 [21] Within        
 Varas-Diaz et al., 2020 [20] Within        
Multimodal training
 Eggenberger et al., 2020 [59] Within (assessed from graphics)    DG, MG & TG: ↔ DG, MG & TG: ↔ DG, MG & TG: ↔      
  Between    DG & MG vs. TG: ↑; DG vs. MG: ↑ DG & MG vs. TG: ↔; DG vs. MG: ↑ DG vs. MG: ↑      
 McKune et al., 2017 [46] Within 2TG: ; 3TG: ↔    2TG: ↔; 3TG: ↓ 2TG: ↔; 3TG: ↓ 2TG: ↔; 3TG: ↓ 2TG & 3TG: ↔ 2TG: ↔; 3TG: ↓   
 Rezende Barbosa et al., 2019 [60] Between     
 Rossi et al., 2013 [61] Within ↔ (LF); ↓ (LF nu)    
 Verheyden et al., 2006 [62] Within   standing & supine: ↔    standing & supine: ↔ standing & supine: ↔ Standing & supine: ↔ standing & supine: ↔   
Outcome secondary health factors
Author, year Analysis BF BM BMI BP BR CO SV TPR VO2 max or peak 6-MWT
Endurance training
 Albinet et al., 2016 [56] Group x session interaction          
 Okazaki et al., 2005 [57] Within    ↓ (DBP); (SBP)  
 Wanderley et al., 2013 [22] Within       
Resistance training
 Gerage et al., 2013 [58] Within ↔ (DBP & MBP); ↓ (SBP)       
 Kanegusuku et al., 2015 [18] Within         
 Wanderley et al., 2013 [22] Within       
Coordinative training
 Audette et al., 2006 [21] Within          
 Varas-Diaz et al., 2020 [20] Within         
Multimodal training
 McKune et al., 2017 [46] Within   2TG & 3TG: ↔ 2TG & 3TG: ↔ 2TG: ↓; 3TG: ↓ (DBP), ↔ (SBP)       
 Rezende Barbosa et al., 2019 [60]           
 Verheyden et al., 2006 [62]          
  1. BF, body fat; BM, body mass; BMI, body mass index; BR, baroreflex sensitivity; CO, cardiac output; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DG, dancing group; HF (nu), power in high frequency range (in normalized units); LF (nu), power in low frequency range (in normalized units); ln, natural logarithm; MBP, mean blood pressure; MG, memory training group; mRR, mean RR interval; RHR, resting heart rate; RMSSD, square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SD1, standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat variability, extracted from Poincaré Plot; SD2, standard deviation of the long-term variability, extracted from Poincaré Plot; SDNN, standard deviation of NN intervals; SV, stroke volume; TG, treadmill walking group; TP, total power; TPR, total peripheral resistance; VO2 max, maximum oxygen consumption; VO2 peak, peak oxygen consumption; 6-MWT, six minute walking test; 2TG: training group exercising two times per week; 3TG: training group exercising three times per week. ↑ indicates significant increase (p < 0.05); ↓ indicates significant decrease; ↔ indicates no significant change