Raz N. Regional brain changes in aging healthy adults: general trends, individual differences and modifiers. Cereb Cortex. 2005;15:1676–89. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhi044.
Raz N, Ghisletta P, Rodrigue KM, Kennedy KM, Lindenberger U. Trajectories of brain aging in middle-aged and older adults: regional and individual differences. NeuroImage. 2010;51:501–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.03.020.
Raz N, Schmiedek F, Rodrigue KM, Kennedy KM, Lindenberger U, Lövdén M. Differential brain shrinkage over 6 months shows limited association with cognitive practice. Brain Cogn. 2013;82:171–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2013.04.002.
Raz N, Rodrigue KM, Head D, Kennedy KM, Acker JD. Differential aging of the medial temporal lobe: a study of a five-year change. Neurology. 2004;62:433–8.
Raz N, Gunning FM, Head D, Dupuis JH, McQuain J, Briggs SD, et al. Selective aging of the human cerebral cortex observed in vivo: differential vulnerability of the prefrontal gray matter. Cereb Cortex. 1997;7:268–82.
Tisserand DJ, Pruessner JC, Sanz Arigita EJ, van Boxtel MPJ, Evans AC, Jolles J, Uylings HBM. Regional frontal cortical volumes decrease differentially in aging: an MRI study to compare volumetric approaches and voxel-based morphometry. NeuroImage. 2002;17:657–69. https://doi.org/10.1006/nimg.2002.1173.
Resnick SM, Pham DL, Kraut MA, Zonderman AB, Davatzikos C. Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging studies of older adults: a shrinking brain. J Neurosci. 2003;23:3295–301.
Allen JS, Bruss J, Brown CK, Damasio H. Normal neuroanatomical variation due to age: the major lobes and a parcellation of the temporal region. Neurobiol Aging. 2005;26:1245–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2005.05.023 discussion 1279-82.
Salat DH, Kaye JA, Janowsky JS. Prefrontal gray and white matter volumes in healthy aging and Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol. 1999;56:338–44.
Bartzokis G, Beckson M, Lu PH, Nuechterlein KH, Edwards N, Mintz J. Age-related changes in frontal and temporal lobe volumes in men: a magnetic resonance imaging study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58:461–5.
DeCarli C, Murphy DG, Gillette JA, Haxby JV, Teichberg D, Schapiro MB, Horwitz B. Lack of age-related differences in temporal lobe volume of very healthy adults. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1994;15:689–96.
Raz N. Aging of the brain and its impact on cognitive performance: integration of structural and functional findings. In: The handbook of aging and cognition. 2nd ed. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers; 2000. p. 1–90.
Gunning-Dixon FM, Brickman AM, Cheng JC, Alexopoulos GS. Aging of cerebral white matter: a review of MRI findings. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009;24:109–17. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.2087.
Salat DH, Tuch DS, Hevelone ND, Fischl B, Corkin S, Rosas HD, Dale AM. Age-related changes in prefrontal white matter measured by diffusion tensor imaging. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1064:37–49. https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1340.009.
Fjell AM, Walhovd KB. Structural brain changes in aging: courses, causes and cognitive consequences. Rev Neurosci. 2010;21:187–221.
Reuter-Lorenz PA, Park DC. How does it STAC up? Revisiting the scaffolding theory of aging and cognition. Neuropsychol Rev. 2014;24:355–70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-014-9270-9.
Albert MS. The ageing brain: Normal and abnormal memory. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci. 1997;352:1703–9. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1997.0152.
Park DC, Lautenschlager G, Hedden T, Davidson NS, Smith AD, Smith PK. Models of visuospatial and verbal memory across the adult life span. Psychol Aging. 2002;17:299–320. https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-79188.8.131.529.
Buckner RL. Memory and executive function in aging and AD: multiple factors that cause decline and reserve factors that compensate. Neuron. 2004;44:195–208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2004.09.006.
Hedden T, Gabrieli JDE. Insights into the ageing mind: a view from cognitive neuroscience. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2004;5:87–96. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn1323.
Erickson KI, Prakash RS, Voss MW, Chaddock L, Heo S, McLaren M, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is associated with age-related decline in hippocampal volume. J Neurosci. 2010;30:5368–75. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6251-09.2010.
O’Shea A, Cohen RA, Porges EC, Nissim NR, Woods AJ. Cognitive aging and the Hippocampus in older adults. Front Aging Neurosci. 2016;8:298. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2016.00298.
Kramer JH, Rosen HJ, Du A-T, Schuff N, Hollnagel C, Weiner MW, et al. Dissociations in hippocampal and frontal contributions to episodic memory performance. Neuropsychology. 2005;19:799–805. https://doi.org/10.1037/0894-4184.108.40.2069.
Erickson KI, Voss MW, Prakash RS, Basak C, Szabo A, Chaddock L, et al. Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:3017–22. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1015950108.
Reuter-Lorenz PA. New visions of the aging mind and brain. Trends Cogn Sci. 2002;6:394–400. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(02)01957-5.
Reuter-Lorenz PA, Cappell KA. Neurocognitive aging and the compensation hypothesis. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. 2008;17:177–82. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2008.00570.x.
Cabeza R. Hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults: the HAROLD model. Psychol Aging. 2002;17:85–100. https://doi.org/10.1037//0882-79220.127.116.11.
Byun K, Hyodo K, Suwabe K, Ochi G, Sakairi Y, Kato M, et al. Positive effect of acute mild exercise on executive function via arousal-related prefrontal activations: an fNIRS study. NeuroImage. 2014;98:336–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.04.067.
Hyodo K, Dan I, Suwabe K, Kyutoku Y, Yamada Y, Akahori M, et al. Acute moderate exercise enhances compensatory brain activation in older adults. Neurobiol Aging. 2012;33:2621–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2011.12.022.
Kujach S, Byun K, Hyodo K, Suwabe K, Fukuie T, Laskowski R, et al. A transferable high-intensity intermittent exercise improves executive performance in association with dorsolateral prefrontal activation in young adults. NeuroImage. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.12.003.
Yanagisawa H, Dan I, Tsuzuki D, Kato M, Okamoto M, Kyutoku Y, Soya H. Acute moderate exercise elicits increased dorsolateral prefrontal activation and improves cognitive performance with Stroop test. NeuroImage. 2010;50:1702–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.12.023.
Bierre KL, Lucas SJE, Guiney H, Cotter JD, Machado L. Cognitive difficulty intensifies age-related changes in anterior frontal hemodynamics: novel evidence from near-infrared spectroscopy. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2017;72:181–8. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glw061.
Ogawa Y, Kotani K, Jimbo Y. Relationship between working memory performance and neural activation measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Brain Behav. 2014;4:544–51. https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.238.
Yamamoto U, Mashima N, Hiroyasu T. Evaluating working memory capacity with functional near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of brain activity. J Cogn Enhanc. 2018;49:5. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41465-017-0063-y.
Yasumura A, Inagaki M, Hiraki K. Relationship between neural activity and executive function: an NIRS study. ISRN Neurosci. 2014;2014:734952. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/734952.
Cabeza R. Task-independent and task-specific age effects on brain activity during working memory, visual attention and episodic retrieval. Cereb Cortex. 2004;14:364–75. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhg133.
Reuter-Lorenz PA, Lustig C. Brain aging: reorganizing discoveries about the aging mind. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2005;15:245–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2005.03.016.
Schneider-Garces NJ, Gordon BA, Brumback-Peltz CR, Shin E, Lee Y, Sutton BP, et al. Span, CRUNCH, and beyond: working memory capacity and the aging brain. J Cogn Neurosci. 2010;22:655–69. https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2009.21230.
Reuter-Lorenz PA, Park DC. Human neuroscience and the aging mind: a new look at old problems. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2010;65:405–15. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbq035.
Park DC, Reuter-Lorenz P. The adaptive brain: aging and neurocognitive scaffolding. Annu Rev Psychol. 2009;60:173–96. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093656.
Lague-Beauvais M, Brunet J, Gagnon L, Lesage F, Bherer L. A fNIRS investigation of switching and inhibition during the modified Stroop task in younger and older adults. NeuroImage. 2013;64:485–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.09.042.
Suwabe K, Byun K, Hyodo K, Reagh ZM, Roberts JM, Matsushita A, et al. Rapid stimulation of human dentate gyrus function with acute mild exercise. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1805668115.
Chang H, Kim K, Jung Y-J, Kato M. Effects of acute high-intensity resistance exercise on cognitive function and oxygenation in prefrontal cortex. J Exerc Nutrition Biochem. 2017;21:1–8. https://doi.org/10.20463/jenb.2017.0012.
Coetsee C, Terblanche E. Cerebral oxygenation during cortical activation: the differential influence of three exercise training modalities. A randomized controlled trial. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-017-3651-8.
Liu-Ambrose T, Nagamatsu LS, Voss MW, Khan KM, Handy TC. Resistance training and functional plasticity of the aging brain: a 12-month randomized controlled trial. Neurobiol Aging. 2012;33:1690–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2011.05.010.
Anderson-Hanley C, Barcelos NM, Zimmerman EA, Gillen RW, Dunnam M, Cohen BD, et al. The aerobic and cognitive exercise study (ACES) for community-dwelling older adults with or at-risk for mild cognitive impairment (MCI): neuropsychological, neurobiological and neuroimaging outcomes of a randomized clinical trial. Front Aging Neurosci. 2018;10:876. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2018.00076.
Wu M-T, Tang P-F, JOS G, Chou T-L, Chang Y-K, Hsu Y-C, et al. Task-switching performance improvements after Tai Chi Chuan training are associated with greater prefrontal activation in older adults. Front Aging Neurosci. 2018;10:280. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2018.00280.
Hillman CH, Erickson KI, Kramer AF. Be smart, exercise your heart: exercise effects on brain and cognition. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2008;9:58–65. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2298.
Gomes-Osman J, Cabral DF, Morris TP, McInerney K, Cahalin LP, Rundek T, et al. Exercise for cognitive brain health in aging. Neurol Clin Pract. 2018;8:257–65. https://doi.org/10.1212/CPJ.0000000000000460.
Hötting K, Röder B. Beneficial effects of physical exercise on neuroplasticity and cognition. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37:2243–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.04.005.
Voelcker-Rehage C, Niemann C. Structural and functional brain changes related to different types of physical activity across the life span. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37:2268–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.01.028.
Rolland Y, van Abellan KG, Vellas B. Healthy brain aging: role of exercise and physical activity. Clin Geriatr Med. 2010;26:75–87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cger.2009.11.002.
Keller K, Engelhardt M. Strength and muscle mass loss with aging process. Age and strength loss. MLTJ. 2013;3:346–50.
Kyle UG, Genton L, Hans D, Karsegard L, Slosman DO, Pichard C. Age-related differences in fat-free mass, skeletal muscle, body cell mass and fat mass between 18 and 94 years. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001;55:663–72. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601198.
Lexell J. Human aging, muscle mass, and fiber type composition. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1995;50 Spec No:11–6.
Janssen I, Heymsfield SB, Wang ZM, Ross R. Skeletal muscle mass and distribution in 468 men and women aged 18-88 yr. J Appl Physiol. 2000;89:81–8. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.2000.89.1.81.
Frontera WR, Hughes VA, Lutz KJ, Evans WJ. A cross-sectional study of muscle strength and mass in 45- to 78-yr-old men and women. J Appl Physiol. 1991;71:644–50. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1918.104.22.1684.
Rogers MA, Evans WJ. Changes in skeletal muscle with aging: effects of exercise training. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 1993;21:65–102.
Mayer F, Scharhag-Rosenberger F, Carlsohn A, Cassel M, Müller S, Scharhag J. The intensity and effects of strength training in the elderly. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2011;108:359–64. https://doi.org/10.3238/arztebl.2011.0359.
Haff G, Triplett NT, editors. Essentials of strength training and conditioning. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2016.
Goodpaster BH, Park SW, Harris TB, Kritchevsky SB, Nevitt M, Schwartz AV, et al. The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: the health, aging and body composition study. J Gerontol Ser A Biol Med Sci. 2006;61:1059–64.
Dey DK, Bosaeus I, Lissner L, Steen B. Changes in body composition and its relation to muscle strength in 75-year-old men and women: a 5-year prospective follow-up study of the NORA cohort in Göteborg, Sweden. Nutrition. 2009;25:613–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2008.11.023.
Koster A, Ding J, Stenholm S, Caserotti P, Houston DK, Nicklas BJ, et al. Does the amount of fat mass predict age-related loss of lean mass, muscle strength, and muscle quality in older adults? J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2011;66:888–95. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glr070.
Frontera WR, Hughes VA, Fielding RA, Fiatarone MA, Evans WJ, Roubenoff R. Aging of skeletal muscle: a 12-yr longitudinal study. J Appl Physiol. 2000;88:1321–6. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.2000.88.4.1321.
Landers KA, Hunter GR, Wetzstein CJ, Bamman MM, Weinsier RL. The interrelationship among muscle mass, strength, and the ability to perform physical tasks of daily living in younger and older women. J Gerontol Ser A Biol Med Sci. 2001;56:B443–8.
Amaral JF, Alvim FC, Castro EA, Doimo LA, Silva MV, Novo Júnior JM. Influence of aging on isometric muscle strength, fat-free mass and electromyographic signal power of the upper and lower limbs in women. Braz J Phys Ther. 2014;18:183–90. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1413-35552012005000145.
Viitasalo JT, Era P, Leskinen A-L, Heikkinen E. Muscular strength profiles and anthropometry in random samples of men aged 31–35, 51–55 and 71–75 years. Ergonomics. 1985;28:1563–74. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140138508963288.
Kemmler W, von Stengel S, Schoene D, Kohl M. Changes of maximum leg strength indices during adulthood a cross-sectional study with non-athletic men aged 19-91. Front Physiol. 2018;9:1524. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01524.
Harbo T, Brincks J, Andersen H. Maximal isokinetic and isometric muscle strength of major muscle groups related to age, body mass, height, and sex in 178 healthy subjects. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112:267–75. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-011-1975-3.
Larsson L, Grimby G, Karlsson J. Muscle strength and speed of movement in relation to age and muscle morphology. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol. 1979;46:451–6. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1922.214.171.1241.
Overend TJ, Cunningham DA, Kramer JF, Lefcoe MS, Paterson DH. Knee extensor and knee flexor strength: cross-sectional area ratios in young and elderly men. J Gerontol. 1992;47:M204–10.
Faulkner JA, Larkin LM, Claflin DR, Brooks SV. Age-related changes in the structure and function of skeletal muscles. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2007;34:1091–6. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1681.2007.04752.x.
Lexell J, Taylor CC, Sjöström M. What is the cause of the ageing atrophy? J Neurol Sci. 1988;84:275–94. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-510X(88)90132-3.
Wolfson L, JUDGE J, Whipple R, King M. Strength is a major factor in balance, gait, and the occurrence of falls. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1995;50 Spec No:64–7.
Hicks GE, Shardell M, Alley DE, Miller RR, Bandinelli S, Guralnik J, et al. Absolute strength and loss of strength as predictors of mobility decline in older adults: the InCHIANTI study. J Gerontol Ser A Biol Med Sci. 2012;67A:66–73. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glr055 .
Manini TM, Visser M, Won-Park S, Patel KV, Strotmeyer ES, Chen H, et al. Knee extension strength cutpoints for maintaining mobility. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007;55:451–7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01087.x
Roshanravan B, Patel KV, Fried LF, Robinson-Cohen C, de Boer IH, Harris T, et al. Association of muscle endurance, fatigability, and strength with functional limitation and mortality in the health aging and body composition study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2017;72:284–91. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glw210.
Visser M, Goodpaster BH, Kritchevsky SB, Newman AB, Nevitt M, Rubin SM, et al. Muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle fat infiltration as predictors of incident mobility limitations in well-functioning older persons. J Gerontol Ser A Biol Med Sci. 2005;60:324–33. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/60.3.324.
Newman AB, Kupelian V, Visser M, Simonsick EM, Goodpaster BH, Kritchevsky SB, et al. Strength, but not muscle mass, is associated with mortality in the health, aging and body composition study cohort. J Gerontol Ser A Biol Med Sci. 2006;61:72–7. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/61.1.72.
Swallow EB, Reyes D, Hopkinson NS, Man WD-C, Porcher R, Cetti EJ, et al. Quadriceps strength predicts mortality in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax. 2007;62:115–20. https://doi.org/10.1136/thx.2006.062026.
Nakamoto H, Yoshitake Y, Takai Y, Kanehisa H, Kitamura T, Kawanishi M, Mori S. Knee extensor strength is associated with mini-mental state examination scores in elderly men. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112:1945–53. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-011-2176-9.
Chen W-L, Peng T-C, Sun Y-S, Yang H-F, Liaw F-Y, Wu L-W, et al. Examining the association between quadriceps strength and cognitive performance in the elderly. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015;94:e1335. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000001335.
Frith E, Loprinzi PD. The association between lower extremity muscular strength and cognitive function in a national sample of older adults. J Lifestyle Med. 2018;8:99–104. https://doi.org/10.15280/jlm.2018.8.2.99.
Steves CJ, Mehta MM, Jackson SHD, Spector TD. Kicking back cognitive ageing: leg power predicts cognitive ageing after ten years in older female twins. Gerontology. 2016;62:138–49. https://doi.org/10.1159/000441029.
Pentikäinen H, Savonen K, Komulainen P, Kiviniemi V, Paajanen T, Kivipelto M, et al. Muscle strength and cognition in ageing men and women: the DR’s EXTRA study. Eur Geriatr Med. 2017;8:275–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurger.2017.04.004.
Alfaro-Acha A, Al Snih S, Raji MA, Kuo Y-F, Markides KS, Ottenbacher KJ. Handgrip strength and cognitive decline in older Mexican Americans. J Gerontol Ser A Biol Med Sci. 2006;61:859–65.
van Dam R, van Ancum JM, Verlaan S, Scheerman K, Meskers CGM, Maier AB. Lower cognitive function in older patients with lower muscle strength and muscle mass. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2018;45:243–50. https://doi.org/10.1159/000486711.
Firth J, Firth JA, Stubbs B, Vancampfort D, Schuch FB, Hallgren M, et al. Association between muscular strength and cognition in people with major depression or bipolar disorder and healthy controls. JAMA Psychiatry. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.0503.
Firth J, Stubbs B, Vancampfort D, Firth JA, Large M, Rosenbaum S, et al. Grip strength is associated with cognitive performance in schizophrenia and the general population: a UK biobank study of 476559 participants. Schizophr Bull. 2018;44:728–36. https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sby034.
Sternäng O, Reynolds CA, Finkel D, Ernsth-Bravell M, Pedersen NL, Dahl Aslan AK. Grip strength and cognitive abilities: associations in old age. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2016;71:841–8. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbv017.
Mavros Y, Gates N, Wilson GC, Jain N, Meiklejohn J, Brodaty H, et al. Mediation of cognitive function improvements by strength gains after resistance training in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: outcomes of the study of mental and resistance training. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017;65:550–9. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.14542.
Forte R, Boreham CAG, Leite JC, de Vito G, Brennan L, Gibney ER, Pesce C. Enhancing cognitive functioning in the elderly: multicomponent vs resistance training. Clin Interv Aging. 2013;8:19–27. https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S36514.
Kilgour AHM, Todd OM, Starr JM. A systematic review of the evidence that brain structure is related to muscle structure and their relationship to brain and muscle function in humans over the lifecourse. BMC Geriatr. 2014;14:85. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2318-14-85.
Ciolac EG, Rodrigues-da-Silva JM. Resistance training as a tool for preventing and treating musculoskeletal disorders. Sports Med. 2016;46:1239–48. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0507-z.
Hunter GR, McCarthy JP, Bamman MM. Effects of resistance training on older adults. Sports Med. 2004;34:329–48. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200434050-00005.
Hurley BF, Hanson ED, Sheaff AK. Strength training as a countermeasure to aging muscle and chronic disease. Sports Med. 2011;41:289–306. https://doi.org/10.2165/11585920-000000000-00000.
Hurley BF, Roth SM. Strength training in the elderly. Sports Med. 2000;30:249–68. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200030040-00002.
Hurley B. Does strength training improve health status? Strength Cond J. 1994;16:7–13.
Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA, French DN. Resistance training for health and performance. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2002;1:165–71. https://doi.org/10.1249/00149619-200206000-00007.
Latham NK, Bennett DA, Stretton CM, Anderson CS. Systematic review of progressive resistance strength training in older adults. J Gerontol Ser A Biol Med Sci. 2004;59:48–61.
Seguin R, Nelson ME. The benefits of strength training for older adults. Am J Prev Med. 2003;25:141–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797(03)00177-6.
Shaw BS, Shaw I, Brown GA. Resistance exercise is medicine: strength training in health promotion and rehabilitation. Int J Ther Rehabil. 2015;22:385–9. https://doi.org/10.12968/ijtr.2015.22.8.385.
Westcott WL. Resistance training is medicine: effects of strength training on health. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2012;11:209–16. https://doi.org/10.1249/JSR.0b013e31825dabb8.
Winett RA, Carpinelli RN. Potential health-related benefits of resistance training. Prev Med. 2001;33:503–13. https://doi.org/10.1006/pmed.2001.0909.
Wilke J, Giesche F, Klier K, Vogt L, Herrmann E, Banzer W. Acute effects of resistance exercise on cognitive function in healthy adults: a systematic review with multilevel meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-019-01085-x.
Köppel M, Hamacher D. Kräftigung wider das Altern. B & G. 2018;34:218–24. https://doi.org/10.1055/a-0670-5030.
Chang Y-K, Pan C-Y, Chen F-T, Tsai C-L, Huang C-C. Effect of resistance-exercise training on cognitive function in healthy older adults: a review. J Aging Phys Act. 2012;20:497–517. https://doi.org/10.1123/japa.20.4.497.
Soga K, Masaki H, Gerber M, Ludyga S. Acute and long-term effects of resistance training on executive function. J Cogn Enhanc. 2018;56:729. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41465-018-0079-y.
Li Z, Peng X, Xiang W, Han J, Li K. The effect of resistance training on cognitive function in the older adults: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40520-018-0998-6.
Landrigan J-F, Bell T, Crowe M, Clay OJ, Mirman D. Lifting cognition: a meta-analysis of effects of resistance exercise on cognition. Psychol Res. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-019-01145-x.
Wang S, Yin H, Wang X, Jia Y, Wang C, Wang L, Chen L. Efficacy of different types of exercises on global cognition in adults with mild cognitive impairment: a network meta-analysis. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40520-019-01142-5.
Stillman CM, Cohen J, Lehman ME, Erickson KI. Mediators of physical activity on neurocognitive function: a review at multiple levels of analysis. Front Hum Neurosci. 2016;10:626. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2016.00626.
Törpel A, Herold F, Hamacher D, Müller NG, Schega L. Strengthening the brain—is resistance training with blood flow restriction an effective strategy for cognitive improvement? J Clin Med. 2018;7:377. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7100337.
Stimpson NJ, Davison G, Javadi A-H. Joggin’ the noggin: towards a physiological understanding of exercise-induced cognitive benefits. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2018;88:177–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.03.018.
Audiffren M, André N. The exercise-cognition relationship: a virtuous circle. J Sport Health Sci. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2019.03.001.
Basso JC, Suzuki WA. The effects of acute exercise on mood, cognition, neurophysiology, and neurochemical pathways: a review. BPL. 2017;2:127–52. https://doi.org/10.3233/BPL-160040.
Voss MW, Vivar C, Kramer AF, van Praag H. Bridging animal and human models of exercise-induced brain plasticity. Trends Cogn Sci. 2013;17:525–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2013.08.001.
Cotman CW, Berchtold NC. Exercise: a behavioral intervention to enhance brain health and plasticity. Trends Neurosci. 2002;25:295–301.
Cotman CW, Berchtold NC, Christie L-A. Exercise builds brain health: key roles of growth factor cascades and inflammation. Trends Neurosci. 2007;30:464–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2007.06.011.
Brigadski T, Leßmann V. BDNF: a regulator of learning and memory processes with clinical potential. e-Neuroforum. 2014;5:1–11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13295-014-0053-9.
Marston KJ, Brown BM, Rainey-Smith SR, Peiffer JJ. Resistance exercise-induced responses in physiological factors linked with cognitive health. J Alzheimers Dis. 2019. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-181079.
Stillman CM, Erickson KI. Physical activity as a model for health neuroscience. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.13669.
Buford TW, Pahor M. Making preventive medicine more personalized: implications for exercise-related research. Prev Med. 2012;55:34–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.05.001.
Buford TW, Roberts MD, Church TS. Toward exercise as personalized medicine. Sports Med. 2013;43:157–65. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-013-0018-0.
Müller P, Rehfeld K, Schmicker M, Müller N. P52. Future directions for physical exercise as personalized medicine. Clin Neurophysiol. 2018;129:–e88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2018.04.689.
Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. J Clin Epidemiol. 2009;62:1006–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2009.06.005.
Harris JD, Quatman CE, Manring MM, Siston RA, Flanigan DC. How to write a systematic review. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42:2761–8. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546513497567.
Formenti D, Perpetuini D, Iodice P, Cardone D, Michielon G, Scurati R, et al. Effects of knee extension with different speeds of movement on muscle and cerebral oxygenation. PeerJ. 2018;6:e5704. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5704.
Woodward ML, Gicas KM, Warburton DE, White RF, Rauscher A, Leonova O, et al. Hippocampal volume and vasculature before and after exercise in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2018;202:158–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2018.06.054.
Kim YS, Shin SK, Hong SB, Kim HJ. The effects of strength exercise on hippocampus volume and functional fitness of older women. Exp Gerontol. 2017;97:22–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2017.07.007.
Fontes EB, Libardi CA, Castellano G, Okano AH, Fernandes PT, Chacon-Mikahil MP, et al. Effects of resistance training in gray matter density of elderly. Sport Sci Health. 2017;13:233–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-016-0298-5.
Palmer HS, Håberg AK, Fimland MS, Solstad GM, Moe Iversen V, Hoff J, et al. Structural brain changes after 4 wk of unilateral strength training of the lower limb. J Appl Physiol. 2013;115:167–75. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00277.2012.
Griffin L, Cafarelli E. Resistance training: cortical, spinal, and motor unit adaptations. Can J Appl Physiol. 2005;30:328–40. https://doi.org/10.1139/h05-125.
Olsson C-J, Hedlund M, Sojka P, Lundström R, Lindström B. Increased prefrontal activity and reduced motor cortex activity during imagined eccentric compared to concentric muscle actions. Front Hum Neurosci. 2012;6:255. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2012.00255.
Matsuura C, Gomes PSC, Haykowsky M, Bhambhani Y. Cerebral and muscle oxygenation changes during static and dynamic knee extensions to voluntary fatigue in healthy men and women: a near infrared spectroscopy study. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2011;31:114–23. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-097X.2010.00986.x.
Alves CR, Gualano B, Takao PP, Avakian P, Fernandes RM, Morine D, Takito MY. Effects of acute physical exercise on executive functions: a comparison between aerobic and strength exercise. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2012;34:539–49.
Cassilhas RC, Viana VAR, Grassmann V, Santos RT, Santos RF, Tufik SE, Mello MT. The impact of resistance exercise on the cognitive function of the elderly. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39:1401–7. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e318060111f.
Chang Y-K, Etnier JL. Exploring the dose-response relationship between resistance exercise intensity and cognitive function. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2009;31:640–56. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.31.5.640.
Gates NJ, Valenzuela M, Sachdev PS, Singh NA, Baune BT, Brodaty H, et al. Study of mental Activity and regular training (SMART) in at risk individuals: a randomised double blind, sham controlled, longitudinal trial. BMC Geriatr. 2011;11:19. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2318-11-19.
Johnson L, Addamo PK, Selva Raj I, Borkoles E, Wyckelsma V, Cyarto E, Polman RC. An acute bout of exercise improves the cognitive performance of older adults. J Aging Phys Act. 2016;24:591–8. https://doi.org/10.1123/japa.2015-0097.
Schega L, Peter B, Törpel A, Mutschler H, Isermann B, Hamacher D. Effects of intermittent hypoxia on cognitive performance and quality of life in elderly adults: a pilot study. Gerontology. 2013;59:316–23. https://doi.org/10.1159/000350927.
Weinberg L, Hasni A, Shinohara M, Duarte A. A single bout of resistance exercise can enhance episodic memory performance. Acta Psychol. 2014;153:13–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2014.06.011.
Marzolini S, Oh P, McIlroy W, Brooks D. The effects of an aerobic and resistance exercise training program on cognition following stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2013;27:392–402. https://doi.org/10.1177/1545968312465192.
Anderson-Hanley C, Nimon JP, Westen SC. Cognitive health benefits of strengthening exercise for community-dwelling older adults. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2010;32:996–1001. https://doi.org/10.1080/13803391003662702.
Ansai JH, Rebelatto JR. Effect of two physical exercise protocols on cognition and depressive symptoms in oldest-old people: a randomized controlled trial. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2015;15:1127–34. https://doi.org/10.1111/ggi.12411.
Brush CJ, Olson RL, Ehmann PJ, Osovsky S, Alderman BL. Dose–response and time course effects of acute resistance exercise on executive function. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2016;38:396–408. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.2016-0027.
Chang Y-K, Etnier JL. Effects of an acute bout of localized resistance exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults: a randomized controlled trial study. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2009;10:19–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2008.05.004.
Chang Y-K, Tsai C-L, Huang C-C, Wang C-C, Chu I-H. Effects of acute resistance exercise on cognition in late middle-aged adults: general or specific cognitive improvement? J Sci Med Sport. 2014;17:51–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2013.02.007.
Cuttler C, Connolly CP, LaFrance EM, Lowry TM. Resist forgetting: effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on prospective and retrospective memory. Sport Exerc Perform Psychol. 2018;7:205–17. https://doi.org/10.1037/spy0000112.
Helmes E, Harris S. Exercise and executive functioning in older women. J Women Aging. 2017;29:376–84. https://doi.org/10.1080/08952841.2016.1256736.
Hsieh S-S, Chang Y-K, Fang C-L, Hung T-M. Acute resistance exercise facilitates attention control in adult males without an age-moderating effect. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2016;38:247–54. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.2015-0282.
Hsieh S-S, Chang Y-K, Hung T-M, Fang C-L. The effects of acute resistance exercise on young and older males’ working memory. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2016;22:286–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.09.004.
Kierkegaard M, Lundberg IE, Olsson T, Johansson S, Ygberg S, Opava C, et al. High-intensity resistance training in multiple sclerosis - an exploratory study of effects on immune markers in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, and on mood, fatigue, health-related quality of life, muscle strength, walking and cognition. J Neurol Sci. 2016;362:251–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2016.01.063.
Lachman ME, Neupert SD, Bertrand R, Jette AM. The effects of strength training on memory in older adults. JAPA. 2006;14:59–73.
Loprinzi PD. Epidemiological investigation of muscle-strengthening activities and cognitive function among older adults. Chronic Illn. 2016;12:157–62. https://doi.org/10.1177/1742395316641998.
Naderi A, Shaabani F, Esmaeili A, Salman Z, Borella E, Degens H. Effects of low and moderate acute resistance exercise on executive function in community-living older adults. Sport Exerc Perform Psychol. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1037/spy0000135.
Quintero AP, Bonilla-Vargas KJ, Correa-Bautista JE, Domínguez-Sanchéz MA, Triana-Reina HR, Velasco-Orjuela GP, et al. Acute effect of three different exercise training modalities on executive function in overweight inactive men: a secondary analysis of the BrainFit study. Physiol Behav. 2018;197:22–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.09.010.
Ruiz JR, Gil-Bea F, Bustamante-Ara N, Rodríguez-Romo G, Fiuza-Luces C, Serra-Rexach JA, et al. Resistance training does not have an effect on cognition or related serum biomarkers in nonagenarians: a randomized controlled trial. Int J Sports Med. 2015;36:54–60. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0034-1375693 .
Taheri M, Irandoost K, Yousefi S, Jamali A. Effect of 8-week lower extremity weight-bearing exercise protocol and acute caffeine consumption on reaction time in postmenopausal women. Salmand. 2017;12:16–27. https://doi.org/10.21859/sija-120116.
Ikudome S, Mori S, Unenaka S, Kawanishi M, Kitamura T, Nakamoto H. Effect of long-term body-mass-based resistance exercise on cognitive function in elderly people. J Appl Gerontol. 2017;36:1519–33. https://doi.org/10.1177/0733464815625834.
Sandroff BM, Motl RW. Fitness and cognitive processing speed in persons with multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional investigation. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2012;34:1041–52. https://doi.org/10.1080/13803395.2012.715144.
Strassnig MT, Signorile JF, Potiaumpai M, Romero MA, Gonzalez C, Czaja S, Harvey PD. High velocity circuit resistance training improves cognition, psychiatric symptoms and neuromuscular performance in overweight outpatients with severe mental illness. Psychiatry Res. 2015;229:295–301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2015.07.007.
Vital TM, Hernández SSS, Pedroso RV, Teixeira CVL, Garuffi M, Stein AM, et al. Effects of weight training on cognitive functions in elderly with Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Neuropsychol. 2012;6:253–9. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1980-57642012DN06040009.
Fanning J, Walkup MP, Ambrosius WT, Brawley LR, Ip EH, Marsh AP, Rejeski WJ. Change in health-related quality of life and social cognitive outcomes in obese, older adults in a randomized controlled weight loss trial: does physical activity behavior matter? J Behav Med. 2018;41:299–308. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-017-9903-6.
Davis JC, Bryan S, Marra CA, Sharma D, Chan A, Beattie BL, et al. An economic evaluation of resistance training and aerobic training versus balance and toning exercises in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. PLoS One. 2013;8:e63031. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063031.
Dao E, Davis JC, Sharma D, Chan A, Nagamatsu LS, Liu-Ambrose T. Change in body fat mass is independently associated with executive functions in older women: a secondary analysis of a 12-month randomized controlled trial. PLoS One. 2013;8:e52831. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052831.
Timmons JF, Minnock D, Hone M, Cogan KE, Murphy JC, Egan B. Comparison of time-matched aerobic, resistance, or concurrent exercise training in older adults. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2018;28:2272–83. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.13254.
Lee DR, Kim YH, Kim DA, Lee JA, Hwang PW, Lee MJ, You SH. Innovative strength training-induced neuroplasticity and increased muscle size and strength in children with spastic cerebral palsy: an experimenter-blind case study—three-month follow-up. NeuroRehabilitation. 2014;35:131–6. https://doi.org/10.3233/NRE-131036.
Best JR, Nagamatsu LS, Liu-Ambrose T. Improvements to executive function during exercise training predict maintenance of physical activity over the following year. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014;8:97. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00353.
Fernandez-Gonzalo R, Fernandez-Gonzalo S, Turon M, Prieto C, Tesch PA, García-Carreira MC. Muscle, functional and cognitive adaptations after flywheel resistance training in stroke patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2016;13:37. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12984-016-0144-7.
Broman-Fulks JJ, Kelso K, Zawilinski L. Effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise versus resistance training on cognitive vulnerabilities for anxiety disorders. Cogn Behav Ther. 2015;44:240–51. https://doi.org/10.1080/16506073.2015.1020448.
The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan 5.3) [Computer program]. 2014. https://community.cochrane.org/help/tools-and-software/revman-5.
Hecksteden A, Faude O, Meyer T, Donath L. How to construct, conduct and analyze an exercise training study? Front Physiol. 2018;9:239. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01007.
Budde H, Schwarz R, Velasques B, Ribeiro P, Holzweg M, Machado S, et al. The need for differentiating between exercise, physical activity, and training. Autoimmun Rev. 2016;15:110–1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2015.09.004.
Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Whitt MC, Irwin ML, Swartz AM, Strath SJ, et al. Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32:S498–504.
Caspersen CJ, Powell KE, Christenson GM. Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Rep. 1985;100:126–31.
Howley ET. Type of activity: resistance, aerobic and leisure versus occupational physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33:S364–9 discussion S419–20.
Herold F, Hamacher D, Schega L, Müller NG. Thinking while moving or moving while thinking – concepts of motor-cognitive training for cognitive performance enhancement. Front Aging Neurosci. 2018;10:1–11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2018.00228.
Pontifex MB, McGowan AL, Chandler MC, Gwizdala KL, Parks AC, Fenn K, Kamijo K. A primer on investigating the after effects of acute bouts of physical activity on cognition. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.08.015.
Herold F, Wiegel P, Scholkmann F, Müller NG. Applications of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) neuroimaging in exercise−cognition science: a systematic, methodology-focused review. J Clin Med. 2018. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7120466.
Higgins JPT, Altman DG, Gotzsche PC, Juni P, Moher D, Oxman AD, et al. The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. BMJ. 2011;343:d5928. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d5928.
Tsai C-L, Wang C-H, Pan C-Y, Chen F-C, Huang T-H, Chou F-Y. Executive function and endocrinological responses to acute resistance exercise. Front Behav Neurosci. 2014;8:262. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00262.